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Contemporary Approaches in Education

Edited By Kevin Norley, Mehmet Ali Icbay and Hasan Arslan

Contemporary Approaches in Education presents papers of the Fifth European Conference on Social and Behavioral Sciences in St. Petersburg, Russia and the Sixth European Conference on Social and Behavioral Sciences in Selcuk, Izmir, Turkey. The contributions deal with a wide range of educational issues, namely teaching and learning, educational policy and school psychology.
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Gender Self-Concepts of Turkish Five to Six Year-Old Preschool Girls



In early childhood, children begin to develop an understanding of their attributes, abilities, and values. This sense of who they are characterises the development of their self-concepts. Self-concept is a multidimensional concept that reflects one’s perception of relative competence in various domains including social, cognitive, and physical activities (Leibham, Alexander & Johnson, 2013; p. 577).

Researches (Cross & Madson, 1997; Maddux & Brewer, 2005) have shown that one of the most significant differences between males and females is the difference in their self-concept. Eagly’s (1995) meta-analytical research study pointed out that important gender differences are quite compatible with gender stereotypes. Other researches have also shown that people use gender stereotypical traits for self-description (i.e., Bem, 1974; Eagly et al., 2000; Hoffman, 2001). These stereotypes are part of the expectations society holds for men and women (Eagly et al., 2000).

Related to gender, self-concept can be conceptualised as the amount of gender stereotypical traits and behaviours that people use for self-description (Athenstaedt et al., 2009). People are not born with innate gender concepts, but rather, such concepts are learned or created (Messner, 2000). The gender role self-concept develops early in childhood as the sense of belongingness to a gender group is important to children’s self-definition (Martin, 2000). Early experiences are crucial to children’s development of positive self-concepts (Marsh, Ellis, & Craven, 2002). Events lived during the childhood period constitute a person’s judgments and values about himself or herself (DeMoulin, 2000). As early...

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