Edited By Kevin Norley, Mehmet Ali Icbay and Hasan Arslan
Gender Self-Concepts of Turkish Five to Six Year-Old Preschool Girls
In early childhood, children begin to develop an understanding of their attributes, abilities, and values. This sense of who they are characterises the development of their self-concepts. Self-concept is a multidimensional concept that reflects one’s perception of relative competence in various domains including social, cognitive, and physical activities (Leibham, Alexander & Johnson, 2013; p. 577).
Researches (Cross & Madson, 1997; Maddux & Brewer, 2005) have shown that one of the most significant differences between males and females is the difference in their self-concept. Eagly’s (1995) meta-analytical research study pointed out that important gender differences are quite compatible with gender stereotypes. Other researches have also shown that people use gender stereotypical traits for self-description (i.e., Bem, 1974; Eagly et al., 2000; Hoffman, 2001). These stereotypes are part of the expectations society holds for men and women (Eagly et al., 2000).
Related to gender, self-concept can be conceptualised as the amount of gender stereotypical traits and behaviours that people use for self-description (Athenstaedt et al., 2009). People are not born with innate gender concepts, but rather, such concepts are learned or created (Messner, 2000). The gender role self-concept develops early in childhood as the sense of belongingness to a gender group is important to children’s self-definition (Martin, 2000). Early experiences are crucial to children’s development of positive self-concepts (Marsh, Ellis, & Craven, 2002). Events lived during the childhood period constitute a person’s judgments and values about himself or herself (DeMoulin, 2000). As early...
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