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Multilateralism in Global Governance

Formal and Informal Institutions

Edited By Assel Tutumlu and Gaye Güngör

The aim of this edited volume is to bring back multilateralism in global governance research by going beyond the state-centric and formal models of multilateralism of the 1990s and deeper into the informal private agents and structures of global governance. The volume is situated within the third generation scholarly research tying together disparate efforts from various disciplines, such as International Relations, Public Administration, International Law and International Political Economy under the overarching theme of multilateralism approached from the three different angles: normative dimensions of global governance, issue-areas, such as migration and international trade, as well as the limits of multilateralism.
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“The Rivalry between Turkey and Iran in the Middle East Region” Bülent Uğrasız


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Bülent Uğrasız1

The Rivalry between Turkey and Iran in the Middle East Region


Iran’s 1979 Islamic Republic, a revolutionary theocracy, is the antithesis of Ataturk’s secular republic. After Iran’s 1979 Islamic revolution, Iran also threatened the identity of the Turkish state. Iran’s Islamic Republic saw Turkish secularism and Ankara’s close ties to the United States as a threat to its revolutionary Islamic ideology. The two states regarded each other cautiously after 1979. But economic ties between the two countries expanded heavily. During Iran-Iraq war, Turkey maintained strong ties to both states. In 2002, Justice and Development Party obtained the majority in the parliament primarily focused on the West. The Turkish elite focused its attention on strengthening ties with the West especially in gaining admission to the European Union rather than establishing closer ties to the Middle East.

Iran Eight-Year war with Iraq absorbed most of its energies after the 1979 revolution. The Islamic Republic did not have a capability to export its revolution throughout the Middle East, including Turkey. Moreover, Iran’s radical ideology related with Shia sect united much of the region, especially the Arab nations of the Persian Gulf. The Islamic republic could hardly afford to antagonize Turkey as well.

Turkish-Iranian economic, political, and security ties improved significantly after the election of 2002 in Turkey. Especially after the U.S. invasion of Iraq in March 2003, they were improved their economic ties rapidly....

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