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World War II and Two Occupations

Dilemmas of Polish Memory


Edited By Anna Wolff-Powęska and Piotr Forecki

This anthology presents the work of several authors from different academic disciplines. Film and literature experts, sociologists, historians and theatrologists analyse the Polish memory of the Nazi and Stalinist occupations, which are key components of Polish collective identity. Before the political turn of 1989, the memory of World War II was strictly controlled by the state. The elements of memory related to the Soviet occupation were eradicated, as well as any other elements that did not fit the official narrative about the war. Unblocking the hitherto limited public discourse resulted in the process of filling the blank pages of history and the development of different and frequently conflicting communities of memory.
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Anna Zawadzka - Żydokomuna: The Construction of the Insult


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Anna Zawadzka

Żydokomuna: The Construction of the Insult

Translation: Blanka Zahorjanova

Although it often assumes hidden forms, the term żydokomuna is still present in the Polish public sphere, as well as in popular use. Żydokomuna, as a stereotype that firmly embedded in the anti-Semitic language of the Second Republic, played an important role in shaping the attitude of Poles toward the Jews. Polish society had multiple occasions to express this attitude before, during, and immediately after the war and it is this issue that the present article discusses.

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