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From Humanism to Meta-, Post- and Transhumanism?

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Edited By Irina Deretić and Stefan Lorenz Sorgner

The relationship between humanism, metahumanism, posthumanism and transhumanism is one of the most pressing topics concerning many current cultural, social, political, ethical and individual challenges. There have been a great number of uses of the various terms in history. Meta-, post- and transhumanism have in common that they reject the categorically dualist understanding of human beings inherent in humanism.
The essays in this volume consider the relevant historical discourses, important contemporary philosophical reflections and artistic perspectives on this subject-matter. The goal is to obtain a multifaceted survey of the concepts, the relationship of the various concepts and their advantages as well as their disadvantages. Leading scholars of many different traditions, countries and disciplines have contributed to this collection.
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Ivan Vuković, University of Belgrade - Kant’s Two Conceptions of Humanity

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Ivan Vuković

University of Belgrade

Kant’s Two Conceptions of Humanity

We remember Kant for his radical critique of metaphysics, despotism, church and aristocracy, and as a visionary of a rational humanity that actively seeks the political form that could protect the inborn freedom of men and make sense of their moral equality. We remember him as a groundbreaking philosopher who gave the coup de graçe to an entire culture and layed grounds for a new era — our own time.

However, we seem to have forgotten that, at the beginning of his career, Kant himself was immersed into a metaphysical picture of the world with the very same rational theology, cosmology, and psychology that he later rejected as self-contradictory and generally flawed. This neglect seems to be sufficiently justified by Kant’s own silent rejection of his early theories. In this paper, however, I will try to prove the contrary. I will argue that Kant’s rejection was not a complete one, and that our neglect, therefore, cannot be fully justified. I will offer a short reconstruction of Kant’s early philosophy and try to show how it influenced his critical conceptions. My first point will be that Kant at first attributed to God the formative capacities with which he endowed man in his Critiques. My second point will be that his early conception of God’s creation influenced his later ideas on human creation. I will conclude this paper by a short...

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