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Democratic Audit of Poland 2014


Radosław Markowski, Michał Kotnarowski, Michał Wenzel and Marta Żerkowska-Balas

The book is a study of the state of the Polish democracy and focuses on the years 2012 and 2013. It explores available documents and statistical data, offers a collection of experts' judgments, and analyses public opinion research. Ten domains of democracy are covered, some of them as fundamental as the rule of law, the political community or public administration. The study evaluates contemporary Polish democracy as consolidated and assesses it as reasonably effective, although a number of clear shortcomings call for improvements.
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4. Corruption

← 66 | 67 → 4.Corruption


Both international organizations dealing with corruption and public opinion agree with the statement that corruption poses a threat to “rule of law, democracy and human rights, undermines good governance, fairness and social justice, distorts competition, hinders economic development and endangers the stability of democratic institutions and the moral foundations of society.”36 Additionally, it is a phenomenon that is difficult to measure since “everyone knows it exists but few admit they have directly encountered it. It is difficult to estimate the dimensions of this phenomenon which is accompanied by elusiveness, changeability, lack of witnesses, traces, and revealed victims” (A Supreme Audit Office Report for 2012, henceforth as NIK 2012). Nevertheless, corruption is the subject of numerous studies, conducted both by domestic and international organizations.

In this report we discuss legal conditions and corruption cases: the areas threatened by corruption, undertaken anti-corruption actions and their effectiveness. We also present DAP experts’ and society opinions on the phenomenon of corruption, as well as four significant international measures of corruption: the Corruption Perceptions Index by Transparency International and corruption measures from the Rule of Law Index in the World Justice Project and Sustainable Governance Index created by the Bertelsmann Foundation and the Index of Corruption Control by the World Bank.

In the second part of the chapter we deal with the phenomenon of lobbying in Poland. Putting lobbying beside corruption in one chapter might not be most accurate as it suggests that lobbying is as a rule, wrong. However,...

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