A European Perspective
Electoral systems in regional politics of supremacy
University of Wrocław, Poland
The most common dilemma for a modern electoral systems, both in the consolidated democracies of Western Europe, as well as young democracies in central and eastern parts of the continent, is to ensure a balance between representation, concentration and participation (Nohlen 2004, p. 189). It is obvious that in modern countries the electoral system must ensure that political parties have the opportunity to obtain parliamentary representation adequate to their actual population. It should also be possible to create a stable post-election parliamentary majority, which will lead to the establishment of the government and allow its smooth operation during the term. Moreover, in the context of citizens’ rising expectations as to the impact on policy-making and political accountability of deputies, the electoral system should allow voters to not only express their preference with reference to the party, but also, and perhaps above all, personal preferences. However, as repeatedly emphasized in the literature on this subject, these functions are difficult to reconcile in an optimal way (e.g. Urwin 1977; Lijphart 1990; Gallagher, Laver, Mair 1992; Shugart 1992; Klein 1998; Nohlen 2004; Wojtasik 2012).
The purpose of this article is, however, to look at contemporary electoral systems slightly from a different angle, in the context of reviving in many European countries cultural, ethnic, and those on the axis of the center-periphery sociopolitical divisions (Lipset, Rokkan 1967, pp. 95-101; Lipset 1995, pp. 48-80). The result is a meaningful disclosure...
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