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Causal Ubiquity in Quantum Physics

A Superluminal and Local-Causal Physical Ontology

Raphael Neelamkavil

A fixed highest criterial velocity (of light) in STR (special theory of relativity) is a convention for a layer of physical inquiry. QM (Quantum Mechanics) avoids action-at-a-distance using this concept, but accepts non-causality and action-at-a-distance in EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Paradox) entanglement experiments. Even in such allegedly «non-causal» processes, something exists processually in extension-motion, between the causal and the «non-causal». If STR theoretically allows real-valued superluminal communication between EPR entangled particles, quantum processes become fully causal. That is, the QM world is sub-luminally, luminally and superluminally local-causal throughout, and the Law of Causality is ubiquitous in the micro-world. Thus, «probabilistic causality» is a merely epistemic term.
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Chapter 10. Causality in the Epr Paradox: Part 2. The Physical Ontology

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Now we discuss the ontology of causal realism presupposed by the previous chapter. Suppose that in the entanglement experiment the transfer of information from the one to the other entangled particle is simultaneous and instantaneous, as Aspect and many others hold. As already said, if there is no transfer at all, then the actual change in one of the particles will be absolutely a non-causal action-at-a-distance coming from nowhere. Otherwise it must be the result of a transmission from the first entangled particle to the second, in extension and motion, i.e., causal, though faster than light.

A third possibility is that the change in the second part of the system is caused by some external influence, as may be expected by the theory of “downward causation”. Insofar as this third influence or power does not have anything to do with the experiment within the system, one has to show why always a cause external to the system must be invoked in each such occurrence, because the experiment is conducted in a well insulated system. Even in this case the causal argument stands to win: that everything is causal.

One may argue that the second particle was already in the entangled state and has not changed the state. ‘State’ in QM is the measured determination of a particle by experiment. An eigenstate is the dynamical state whose state vector (‘wavefunction’) is an eigenvector (called ‘eigenfunction’) of an operator that always corresponds to a specified (measured) physical quantity,...

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