Edited By James S. Corum, Olaf Mertelsmann and Kaarel Piirimäe
Exodus and Intelligence Operations: the Swedish Military and Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, 1943–45
Lars Ericson Wolke
Developments in the three Baltic countries during the last years of World War Two were followed by a keen interest by the Swedish military intelligence, who conducted a large number of intelligence operations in the region when the German front in the East began to collapse and the Soviet Red Army once again approached the three countries. This paper is an attempt to find out the aim of the Swedish intelligence activities towards the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea, as well the methods used by the Swedish intelligence.
Swedish Intelligence during World War Two1
In World War II Swedish military intelligence was a fairly young organization. In its modern version it was founded in 1905 in connection with a national crisis accompanied by a high level of political tension with Norway. The Military Intelligence Branch was, however, a very small organization in peacetime. However, it expanded in both personnel and budget as war loomed in 1939 and 1940.
The security service in Sweden was divided into two parts, a civilian one under the police (The General Security Service or Allmänna säkerhetstjänsten) and a military service within the Domestic Section of the Defense Staff. In the latter case, intelligence operations were solely a military matter. The military intelligence was led by the Foreign Section (or Section II) of the Defense Staff. All of Sweden’s military attachés abroad sent their reports to this section,...
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