What do the Russian prefixes вы-, из- and the preposition из have in common and what makes them different?
Abstract The article presents semantically close categories of the Russian language: the prefixes из- and вы-, and the preposition из. Its objective is to determine the function of each of those categories as well as the circumstances of applying the complex structure of “вы-verb + из – genitive”, and the “из-verbs + из – genitive” construct. For that reason, a schematic notion of the event starting point, the patterns of its conceptualization, and the semantic constructs of the вы-verbs and the из-verbs, which easily attach the expression of “из – genitive” and those which lack such capacity, common for the prefixes из- and вы- and the preposition из, have been specified. The analysis is founded on the principles of the cognitive grammar of Ronald W. Langacker. Further, the article touches upon the basic equivalents of the вы-verbs and the из-verbs in the Polish language.