A Philosophical Investigation about Human Cooperation
1. Nature and Origins of the We-Intentionality
Cooperative activities consist of actions borne by intentional subjects having a rational attitude to share intentional contents and to coordinate themselves in joint actions. In the recent debate about sociality this rational attitude is normally called We-intentionality. This must be explained in order to put the focus on all forms of human socialization including the more advanced institutions like states, nations and international organizations. In this sense, We-intentionality is a basic concept valid for cooperation in general that enables us to understand the rational elements responsible for the emergence of social organizations. A correct inquiry about this issue supplies us with a definition for the interdependence between individuals and groups and between individuals of the same group. This definition explains what social organizations are, which is their internal dynamic and what is the difference between an intentional cooperative unity and a mere aggregate of individuals. Moreover, such investigation provides the instruments for a social ontology that explains not only the intentional attitudes of the members towards a group, but rather the nature of the cooperation as an objective fact that finds its historical realization in human social organizations. Through a definition of group we might overcome different forms of contract-centered theories, which consider collaborative activities to be merely the result of an interpersonal agreement and commitment. In contrast to Tuomela, I believe that social organizations are not mechanism of self-committing and control over individual commitments, but rather organisms with the final structure of self-preservation. This self-preservation is borne by the...
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