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Media and Education in the Digital Age

Concepts, Assessments, Subversions

Edited By Matteo Stocchetti

This book is an invitation to informed and critical participation in the current debate on the role of digital technology in education and a comprehensive introduction to the most relevant issues in this debate. After an early wave of enthusiasm about the emancipative opportunities of the digital «revolution» in education, recent contributions invite caution, if not scepticism. This collection rejects extreme interpretations and establishes a conceptual framework for the critical questioning of this role in terms of concepts, assessments and subversions. This book offers conceptual tools, ideas and insights for further research. It also provides motivation and information to foster active participation in debates and politics and encourages teachers, parents and learners to take part in the making of the future of our societies.
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Notes on the Contributors

Notes on the Contributors

Cristina Aliagas Marín is a Postdoctoral Researcher in the Department of Educational Studies at The University of Sheffield, United Kingdom. Her research interest focuses on the role of literacy in the everyday life of Catalan/Spanish teenagers, particularly those that resist education. Within this broad area, her research covers a variety of topics: ethnography and literacy, digital literacies, literacy/literary identities and the complex interface between vernacular literacies and the curriculum. In 2012, her PhD. Thesis, El desinterès lector adolescent (The adolescent lack of interest in reading, 2012) was finalist of the Joventut award of the Catalan Government.

Alberto Bitonti has a PhD in Political Theory and Public Affairs (University of Roma Tre, 2011). He is Adjunct Professor of Political Science at IES Abroad Rome (Italy) and Fellow of the School of Public Affairs at American University (Washington DC). His research interests include the theory of power and the political process (especially lobbying and pressure groups), civic and media education and philosophy of science. Recently, he published a book on Italian ruling class.

Scott Bulfin is lecturer in the Faculty of Education at Monash University where he studies ‘new literacies’ for young people and adults across various educational contexts. He is a member of the Learning/New Media Research Group at Monash University and is currently engaged in a three-year Australian Government (ARC) funded ethnography of digital technologies in secondary schools. He can be reached at scott.bulfin@monash.edu.

Josep M. Castellà Lidón is a Senior Lecturer in Catalan Philology and Discourse Analysis in the Department of Humanities at the Universitat Pompeu Fabra. His interests in research encompasses Discourse Analysis and Social Linguistics. Currently, he collaborates with the research group GR@EL /Critical Literacy. He usually collaborates in conferences and journals of applied linguistics. He is the author of the book Oralitat i escriptura: dues cares de la complexitat en el llenguatge (2004), and coauthor of Entendre(‘s) a classe. Les estratègies comunicatives dels docents ben valorats (2007) (Educational Research Award Foundation Catalan Encyclopedia 1999).

Verolien Cauberghe is Assistant Professor in Communication Management at the Ghent University. She teaches the courses Marketing Communication, Corporate Communication and Social Marketing. Her research interest lays on advertising effectiveness and social marketing. In the past she did research related to advertising knowledge among minors, the persuasive impact of communication strategies (e.g., two-sided messages) and crisis communication. Among her recent publications: De Vocht, M., Cauberghe, V., Uyttendaele, M., & Sas, B. (2014). ‘Affective and cognitive reactions towards emerging food safety risks in Europe’, Journal Of Risk Research and Claeys, A.-S., & Cauberghe, V. (2013). ‘What makes crisis response strategies work? The impact of crisis involvement and message framing’. Journal Of Business Research. She can be reached at Veroline.Cauberghe@UGent.be.

Daniel Chazan is Professor in the Department of Teaching and Learning, Policy and Leadership at The University of Maryland College Park, Director of the Center for Mathematics Education, and co-Director of Terrapin Teachers. Chazan studies the teaching of mathematics in compulsory high school settings as a practice, embedded inside societal institutions, within a society with particular kinds of structure, that is carried out by individuals with their own identities and knowledge. Such a view of the teaching of mathematics challenges him to integrate theoretical perspectives and orientations, for example, toward mathematics as a discipline, school as an institution, and students and teachers as members of communities with particular positions in our society. Chazan has studied mathematics from the inside by teaching (Beyond formulas in mathematics and teaching: Dynamics of the High School Algebra Classroom, 2000, Teachers College Press) and, more recently, through observational studies (Teachers College Record 115(2)) and experiments into the practical rationality of teaching (Cognition and Instruction, 30(1), 1–38). He has also worked collaboratively with teachers on teaching education and the improvement of teaching (Embracing Reason: Egalitarian Ideals and High School Mathematics Teaching, 2007, Taylor Francis).

Vincenzo De Masi (vdemas@gmail.com) is currently a PhD candidate at University of Zurich and Lugano with a dissertation on Chinese animation and he is also assistant in the same Institute and filmmaker. Recent publications include: De Masi V. (2013), Miss Puff, a new way of communication in China, KOME Hungarian Communication Studies Association, (ISSN 2063-7330). Benecchi E., De Masi V. (2013), Media Management in Disaster Events: A Case Study of Japanese Earthquake in ‘Business Strategies and Approaches for Effective Engineering Management’, IGI Global, (ISBN-13: 9781466636583, LCC:T56). www.vincenzodemasi.com.

Patrick De Pelsmacker is Professor of Marketing at the University of Antwerp, Belgium, where he teaches courses in Marketing communications, marketing and communication management, marketing research, and research methods. He is the former dean of the Universiteit Antwerpen Management School (now Antwerp Management School). His research interests include consumer behavior, marketing communications and new advertising formats. Among his recent publications: Verhellen Y., Dens N., de Pelsmacker P., ‘Consumer responses to brands placed in Youtube movies: the effect of prominence and celebrity endorser expertise’ in Journal of electronic commerce research – ISSN 1526-6133 - 14:4(2013), p. 287–303 and Charry K., de Pelsmacker P., Pecheux C.- ‘How does perceived effectiveness affect adults’ ethical acceptance of anti-obesity threat appeals to children? When the going gets tough, the audience gets going’ in Journal of business ethics – ISSN 0167-4544 - (2013), p. 1–16. He can be reached at Patrick.Depelsmacker@au.ac.be.

David Elliott is a PhD candidate in the Faculty of Education at Monash University. His research interests include video games and new media learning, online cultures as sites of informal literacy activity, and the radicalising of pedagogy and curriculum through emergent technologies. He is currently the online learning developer for the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER), focusing on the design and implementation of new media learning systems. He can be reached at david.elliott@acer.edu.au.

Judith Faifman is Director of the Digital Media and Learning Program at Centro Argentino de Investigación y Acción Educativa, Buenos Aires, she served as Co-Director of the Media Lab and Digital Cultures Research & Design Program at the Talpiot School in Buenos Aires from 2004–8; was Secretary for Education and Culture at Friends of UNESCO, Buenos Aires; directed the National Youth Film Festival; and has worked on formative digital media education projects in Argentina from the early 1990s.

Julie Faulkner is Senior Lecturer at Monash University, Melbourne. She writes and teaches on matters of literacy, popular culture, identity and digital reading/writing practices. Her publications include the role of new media in curriculum innovation, the development and use of a virtual school in preservice teacher education and the role of pedagogies of discomfort in learning. She has edited Disrupting Pedagogies in the Knowledge Society: Countering Conservative Norms with Creative Approaches (IGI Global), and has jointly edited Learning to Teach: New Time, New Practices (Oxford University Press), currently in second edition.

Karen Ferreira-Meyers is Senior Lecturer and Coordinator Linguistics and Modern Languages at the Institute of Distance Education, University of Swaziland, in Swaziland (Southern Africa). Her research interests include distance and e-learning with a special focus on the attitudes of stakeholders (students, lecturers, tutors) in online learning environments, learning management systems, blended e-learning, MOOCs, etc. Additional research fields comprise contemporary literature (African literature, autofiction and crime fiction mainly), language teaching and learning, interpreting and translation. Among her recent publications on distance/e-learning Ferreira-Meyers, K. and Nkosi, J. ‘How to incorporate academic and digital literacy development in information and communication technology (ICT)-enhanced teaching and learning: the case of Swaziland’, in Talking about learning. The South East European University Language Centre Journal of Teaching and Learning, Vol. 3, 6 p. http://www.seeu.edu.mk/files/broshurat/LCC-boshura2.pdf.

Megan E. Fromm, PhD, is Assistant Professor of communication at Boise State University in Boise, Idaho and an Adjunct Professor at Johns Hopkins University. She has taught at the Salzburg Academy on Media & Global Change, the University of Maryland, Towson University, and the Newseum in Washington, D.C. She is a former professional journalist and was recently elected to the board of directors for the Journalism Education Association for a three-year term as Professional Support Director. Fromm received her PhD from the University of Maryland in 2010, and her dissertation focused on how newspapers have covered scholastic First Amendment cases. An avid supporter of student free press rights, she received the Colorado Friend of the First Amendment Award in 2005 and the Society of Professional Journalists Sunshine Award in 2004.

Brian Goldfarb is Associate Professor of Communication at UCSD. His research and production focuses on visual/digital culture, disability and education. His book, Visual Pedagogy, considers media technologies used in the 20th century to advance models of pedagogy in the US and globally. Goldfarb’s current projects include Global Tourette, a documentary and media exchange project engaging cultural and professional responses to Tourette Syndrome internationally; and, Carescapes, a “born digital” book exploring patient communities in the digital age.

Gloria Gómez-Diago is PhD candidate at the Department of Sciences of Communication (II) at the Rey Juan Carlos University (Madrid). She has worked as journalist and as researcher in international projects related to the use of new technologies and its applications. In the course 2011–2012, she worked as interim professor at the University of Vigo, where she taught Print Advertising Production and Advertising and Cultural Industries. Her research interests comprise research methodologies in communication science, virtual communication and new uses and applications of online platforms such as Virtual Worlds. She is reviewer for Empedocles: European Journal for the Philosophy of Communication and for Journal of Virtual Worlds Research. Since 2008, she maintains the blog ‘fromcommunication’ http://fromcommunication.blogspot.com.es/. Among her latest publications is the entry ‘Cyberspace and Cyberculture’. in Kosut, M. & Golson, J. Geoffrey (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Gender in Media. Sage, 2012.

Yan Han is currently a PhD candidate in Animation and Digital Arts Academy at Communication University of China. Her research interest is in Chinese original animation. She has developed great passion in animation and also made animated short film.

Melissa Harness is currently Ph.D. candidate in Cultural Studies and Education at the University of Tennessee, where she is presently teaching International Education. Her research interests include: the lack of teacher ‘professionalization,’ public policy, bureaucratization of the educational systems in the U.S. and around the world, globalization of education, women’s and racial identity issues, and neoliberal ideologies that play into both world politics and education. She is the author of the book, Pretending Teaching is a Profession: Why Public School Teaching Will Never Be Considered a ‘True’ Profession, published by Lambert Academic Publishing.

Filip Lab is Professor of Photojournalism at the Faculty of Social Science, Charles University, Prague. He is an investigator of the Czech part of Worlds of Journalism Study project, a member of Journalism Studies section of ECREA and project leader of Czech website of European Journalism Observatory (EJO). He is interested in visual communication and transformation of photojournalism practice. He is active as journalist and photographer collaborates with several cultural as well as commercial magazines. For his publications please visit: http://cuni.academia.edu/FilipLab.

Pilar Lacasa is Professor of Developmental Communication and Education at the University of Alcalá. She leads the research group Grupo Imágenes Palabras e Ideas (GIPI) (Images, Words and Ideas Group; http://www2.uah.es/gipi/). The group has developed innovative methodological approaches in a number of areas, and has led the debate about the development of teacher training programmes and educational policy in Spain. Dr Lacasa has been a visiting scholar at the Universities of Utah and British Columbia, and at MIT.

Marlène Loicq is currently a post-doctorate researcher in national project on Transliteracy (ANR TRANSLIT) attached to Rouen University. She has a double PhD in public communication (Laval University, Quebec) and information and communication sciences (Sorbonne Nouvelle University, Paris). Her research interests include media studies, youth mediatic culture and interculturality. She is specialised on media education (policy and theoretical frameworks) and information literacy. She co-edited a book on information pluralism and media diversity and wrote several articles on different national contexts of media education (France, Quebec, Autralia). She promotes an intercultural media education field.

Rut Martínez-Borda is Professor of Developmental Communication and Education and Research Fellow at the University of Alcalá. She is a member of the research group Grupo Imágenes Palabras e Ideas (GIPI) (Images, Words and Ideas Group; http://www2.uah.es/gipi/). She works on videogames, new technologies and new literacies. Her current research on the topic of Computer Games and Narratives is supported by the Ministery of Culture and Education. She has been a visiting scholar at the Insitute of Education at the University of London; University of Westminster of London; University of Delaware of Philadelphia and collaborates with other research groups at the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED) and Universidad de Córdoba, Spain.

Paul Mihailidis is Assistant Professor in the school of communication at Emerson College in Boston, MA, where he teaches media literacy and interactive media. His research focuses on the nexus of media, education, and civic voices. His forthcoming books, Media Literacy and the Emerging Citizen (2014, Peter Lang) and Media Literacy Education in Action (2014, Routledge), outline effective practices for participatory citizenship and engagement in digital culture. Mihailidis, who directs the Salzburg Academy on Media and Global Change, and sits on the board of directors for the National Association of Media Literacy Education, was recently named associate director of the newly formed Engagement Labs at Emerson College.

Tobias Olsson is Professor of Media and Communication Studies at Lund University, Sweden. He has extensive research experience within the areas of media and citizenship, internet culture and mediated participation. Between 2009 and 2013 he coordinated the research project “Organized Producers of Young Net Cultures” (funded by the Swedish Knowledge Foundation) and he is currently starting a research project on user generated content within newspaper companies (Hamrin foundation, 2012–2017). His most recent publications include articles in Javnost – The Public and Continuum: Journal of Media and Cultural Studies. He is also editor of the volume Producing the Internet: Critical Perspectives of Social Media (2013).

Ron Owston is Dean of the Faculty of Education and former Director of the Institute for Research in Learning Technologies (IRLT) at York University, Toronto, Canada. His research interests include the evaluation of e-learning programs in schools, higher education, and continuing professional education with an emphasis on blending learning. Recently he has published in Internet & Higher Education and Educational Researcher.

Katarina Panic is a Researcher and Teaching assistant in the Department of Communication Sciences at Ghent University, where she has been a faculty member since 2009. She is currently working on a Ph.D. on the effect of new media in social marketing. Among her recent publications: Panic, K., Cauberghe, V. & De Pelsmacker, P. (2014). Promoting dental hygiene to children: comparing traditional and interactive media following threat appeals. Journal of Health Communication, available online at http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10810730.2013.821551#.Uw2yDPldWSo, and Panic, K., Cauberghe, V., & De Pelsmacker, P. (2013). ‘Comparing TV ads and advergames targeting children: The impact of persuasion knowledge on behavioral response’. Journal of Advertising: special issue on Advergames, In-Game Advertising, and Social Media Games, 42(2–3), 264–273. She can be reached at Katarina.Panic@UGent.be.

Sara Pereira is Associate Professor at the Communication Sciences Department and researcher at the Communication and Society Research Centre at the University of Minho, Portugal. Currently she is Director of the Communication Sciences Department. She also directs the Master Degree on ‘Communication, Citizenship and Education’ and she teaches several Curricular Units on Media Education/Literacy in graduate and postgraduate courses. She has been coordinating several research projects on media literacy and on young people and media. Her main research interests are the relationship between children, youth and the media; ICT and media at school; media education and media literacy; media audiences and participation. Among her recent publications: Pereira, S., Pereira, L. (2013), ‘Digital Media in Primary Schools: Literacy or Technology? Analysing Government and Media Discourses’. Educational Policy, Sage Publications (Published online before print June 20, 2013, Doi: 10.1177/0895904813492378).

Magda Pischetola is Professor in Digital Media in Education at the Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro. She has a Ph.D. in Education at the Università Cattolica of Milan, Italy (2006–2010), and has completed a Post-doctorate fellowship at the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Brazil (2012). Her Ph.D./Post-doctorate research was held in Italy, Ethiopia and Brazil on the One Laptop Per Child program. Her current research interests focus on the digital divide from the point of view of Education; the impact of technology on learning practices; the role of social media in political activism; the relationship of ICTs to social development. Among her recent publications are: ‘Da crítica à criatividade: olhares sobre os projetos de mídia educação no Brasil’ in Atos de Pesquisa em Educação, vol. 8 no. 1, 2013, pp. 386–401; ‘Il digitale nella didattica: un graduale cambiamento di cultura’ in Media Dialogues – Journal for research of the media and society, vol. 6, no. 15, 2013, pp. 31–45, and ‘Formação de professores para a promoção de projetos de inclusão digital sustentáveis’, in Linhas, vol. 13, no. 2, 2012, pp. 89–98.

Ulli Samuelsson is Senior Faculty Administrator and lecturer in Education at School of Communication and Education, Jönköping University. Her research interest lies in digital inequality among young people. She has recently published her doctoral thesis, Digital (in)equality? ICT use in school and pupils’ technological capital, but also articles in Learning, Media & Technology and Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy.

Sultana A. Shabazz is currently a Ph.D. candidate in Cultural Studies and Sociology at the University of Tennessee, where she teaches a course on the globalization of education. Her dissertation, entitled Power, Privilege, & Perception: Film as a Discursive Practice in the [de]Construction of Otherness, uses critical discourse analysis to examine how American constructions of power and marginalization are reproduced in international dialogues. Research interests include: subaltern discourses and social movements, critical film theory, adult education and generational knowledge, critical pedagogy, and discovering how social groups interface with institutions to construct identity. Her article exploring the intersection of race and politics, ‘The National Black Republican Association: Toward Post-Racial Politics?’, will be published by the Griot Institute at Bucknell University.

Andrej Školkay is the Director of the School of Communication and Media, Bratislava, Slovakia. He has lectured at journalism and media schools across Slovakia and overseas and he has published widely on various aspects of the media, focusing in particular on the relationship between media and politics. He is the author of Media and Globalisation (2009) and a book on Media Law in Slovakia (Kluwer Law International, The Netherlands 2012). His research interests include media policy, media literacy, media and politics, media and international relations, new media, among other topics.

Matteo Stocchetti is Adjunct Professor of Political Communication at Åbo Academy University in Vasa and Senior Lecturer at Arcada University of Applied Science in Helsinki, Finland, where he teaches critical media analysis. The primary focus of his research work is the role of communication in the construction and legitimization of relations of power. Within the media field, his main research interest is the role of digital technology in education. Recent publications include ‘The Great Transformation Three Centuries Later: double movement, ‘marketspeak’ and sacrifice’, in COLLeGIUM. Studies Across Disciplines in the Humanities and Social Sciences, 14. Helsinki: Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2013, pages 210–226 and ‘Critical Thinking and Cultural Recycling: Research notes for the educational use of bad movies’. Trash Culture Journal, 2013, Vol. 1 No. 1. Pages 42–65.

Barbara Szafrazjen is Lecturer in Information and Communication Sciences at the Alps Centre of the University of Aix-Marseille, in Digne-les-Bains, France. Main research interests include the construction of meaning through various topics: ICT and organisation, distance education, face-to-face and distance learning tools, virtual distance learners communities, organisational communication, collective intelligence, methods and methodology in Information and Communication Sciences, multidisciplinary perspectives on Information and Communication Sciences and Economics and Management Sciences. Among her recent publications, Szafrajzen B. and Moutouh J. (2013), ‘Prise en compte de la construction du sens dans les systèmes d’aide à la décision’. R2IE: Revue Internationale d’Intelligence Economique, Systèmes d’aide à la décision et Big Data: comprendre la stratégie aujourd’hui, n. 5, Lavoisier, pp. 167–177.

Alice Nemcova Tejkalova is Assistant Professor of Journalism at the Faculty of Social Science, Charles University, Prague. She is a principal investigator of the Czech part of Worlds of Journalism Study project, a member of Journalism Studies section of ECREA. She is interested in media stereotyping and framing of minor topics, such as Paralympic sport and journalism education. She has been working also as a freelance TV journalist. For her publications please visit: http://cuni.academia.edu/AliceNemcovaTejkalova.

Michal Yerushalmy is a Professor in the Department of Mathematics Education at the University of Haifa, Israel. Yerushalmy is the Director of the Institute of Research and Development of Alternatives in Education, a member of the Learning in Networked Society (LINKS) National Research Center and Vice President for Research of the University of Haifa. Yerushalmy studies mathematical learning and teaching, focus on design and implementation of reformed curricula and on cognitive processes involved in learning with multiple external representations, bodily interactions and modeling. Yerushalmy authored and designed numerous software packages and interactive textbooks (International Journal for Computers in Mathematical Learning, 4 (2–3)). She co- authored the Geometric Supposer (Educational Studies in Mathematics, 57), the VisuaMath algebra curriculum (Technology, Knowledge and Learning 16 (3), Educational Designer, 2(6)), and studies learning of calculus in dynamic and multi-representation environments (Educational Studies in Mathematics, 80 (3)) and designed ways to make technology available for mathematical inquiry learning everywhere using mobile phones (The Math4Mobile project.).

Dennis York is a Distance Learning Specialist at the University of Guelph and a Postdoctoral Research Associate at York University in Toronto, Canada. He holds an MSc and PhD in Education, specializing in e-learning and educational technologies, from the University of West Alabama and York University respectively. He is a past recipient of an Edmund S. Muskie fellowship (USA). He is currently working on the development and evaluation of online and blended learning programs in higher education. His research interests include multimedia instructional design, web-based technologies, engagement strategies and community building in online learning, the role of social media in facilitating teaching and learning in postsecondary education.