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Kazakhstan’s Emerging Economy

Between State and Market


Roman Vakulchuk

Kazakhstan has become a successful market reformer under the leadership of President Nursultan Nazarbayev. But what type of a market economy has emerged in the country since 1991? This book focuses on Kazakhstan’s transition path, examines the role of the state in steering economic processes, and analyses the state – business interaction. The Varieties of Capitalism approach and a core – periphery analytical framework are applied to classify the evolving model of capitalist economy in the country in detail. The research design is based on a qualitative cross-sectional interview study, where 159 semi-structured interviews were conducted. This study makes an innovative contribution to the scholarly literature on the economic and institutional transition of Kazakhstan.
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Chapter 4. Research design: qualitative cross-sectional interview study


This study employs a qualitative research design, including qualitative cross-sectional interviews. Qualitative methods for data collection and data analysis were used throughout, with semi-structured interviews as the main method of data collection and qualitative content analysis as the main method of data analysis. The underlying strategy is investigator triangulation strategy. Prior to and during data collection, various researchers were involved in preparing for the field trip, jointly elaborating interview guides, and conducting pilot and main interviews. Several researchers were also involved in the data analysis.

Qualitative research has been criticized for being overly descriptive, lacking in analytical rigor and generating data that cannot provide generalizable conclusions (George et al. 2005). However, qualitative research also has its clear strengths. The qualitative type of research design is transparent (Bryman 2004, referred to in George et al. 2005). Moreover, as opposed to quantitative methods, ‘qualitative methods are typically more flexible – that is, they allow greater spontaneity and adaptation of the interaction between the researcher and the study participant (…) the strength of qualitative research methods is that participants may provide an answer in their own words, whereas in quantitative research they are usually forced to select one of the fixed responses’ (Mack et al. 2005: 4).

This study includes the elements of both cross-sectional and cross-cultural qualitative research design. Cross-sectional design represents data collection on subsets of a population in a given time-period (Bryman 2004: 41). In this study, the ‘more than one case’ type (Bryman’s typology) of cross-sectional design...

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