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«Bis dat, qui cito dat»

«Gegengabe» in Paremiology, Folklore, Language, and Literature – Honoring Wolfgang Mieder on His Seventieth Birthday

Edited By Christian Grandl and Kevin J. McKenna

Bis dat, qui cito dat – never has a proverb more aptly applied to an individual than does this Medieval Latin saying to Wolfgang Mieder. «He gives twice who gives quickly» captures the essence of his entire career, his professional as well as personal life. As a Gegengabe, this international festschrift honors Wolfgang Mieder on the occasion of his seventieth birthday for his contributions to world scholarship and his kindness, generosity, and philanthropy. Seventy-one friends and colleagues from around the world have contributed sixty-six essays in six languages to this volume, representative of the scope and breadth of his impressive scholarship in paremiology, folklore, language, and literature. This gift in return provides new insights from acknowledged experts from various fields of research.
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Linguistic Commentary in a Corpus of the Proverbs of Spain


Frank Nuessel


In a previous study on linguistic commentary in Italian proverbial language, it was shown that many Italian proverbs contained astute observations that could be interpreted within the framework of contemporary linguistic theory.1 This study examines linguistic commentary in a collection of Spanish proverbial language used in two other studies.2 This brief analysis will examine linguistic commentary in the Campos and Barella corpus of Spanish proverbial language (1993).

Linguistic Commentary

Compared to the richness of linguistic commentary contained in Italian proverbial language, there is a relative paucity of such observations in the Campos and Barella corpus of Spanish proverbial language (1993). Nevertheless, certain observations about language and linguistics may be found in that source. The following categories in linguistic research are clearly discernible: (1) Pragmatics, (2) silence, (3) sociolinguistics, and (4) foreign languages.


Pragmatics is defined as the "branch of linguistics concerned with how language is used in social situations. The pragmatic study of language deals with who says what to whom in specific situations" (Danesi, 2000:182). The British philosopher H.P. Grice (1913–1988) proposed a theory of conversational implicature, i.e., a speech act may be divided into two components: (1) What the speaker says; and (2) what the speaker implicates.3 Grice further puts forward four categories of the "Cooperative Principle," which encompasses the "Maxims of Conversation." These maxims facilitate communication. They consist of four basic principles: (1) Quantity (be as informative...

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