Über schriftsprachliche Voraussetzungen demokratischer Teilhabe
Social and political participation in democracy building: The Role of Literacy Programs and Educational Reforms in Russia
Professor Dr. Grigory Kliucharev,Institute of Sociology, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow.
1. The concept of competence and the concept of ‚Bildung‘
Speaking about the main purpose of education in modern society, the theorists of education can not reach a consensus on the issue of balance between the traditional understanding of Bildung in German philosophy, that is, the formation of personality and individual software features fully operational within the human culture, and skill, that is, achievement of knowledge and skills necessary for professional practice.
German scientist Hermann Roth was apparently the first who consciously used the concept of competence, to find a compromise between these two directions. Interestingly, the introduction into use of the concept of competence – in the second volume of „Pedagogical anthropology“ Roth, published in 1971 – coincided with the transition from traditional to contemporary, and a wider understanding of education. Roth puts forward as a central goal of education – to bring people to a level of Maturity (Mündigkeit). Under the „maturity“ he means the ability for a responsible, conscious activity. Clarifying the concept of maturity, Roth defines it as a state of consciousness in which heteronomy (subjection of a will of its own outside of the norm) is replaced by a fully autonomous (Roth, 1971). His views in this case, as close to an enlightened, advanced (emancipatory, liberal) understanding of education.
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