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Common or Divided Security?

German and Norwegian Perspectives on Euro-Atlantic Security

Robin Allers, Carlo Masala and Rolf Tamnes

Twenty-five years after the end of the Cold War, Euro-Atlantic security is under pressure. Faced with major geopolitical shifts, instability at its frontiers and financial crisis at home, the European nations and their American Allies will have to rethink how to design common security. Failure to animate the European Union (EU) and to reinvigorate the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) as efficient tools for peace and security might lead the West back to the spectre of divided security, to fragmentation and renationalisation. This book addresses the main challenges to Western security from the perspective of two European Allies: Germany and Norway.
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Chapter 8: Active Participation Despite Limited Influence: Explaining Norway’s Participation in EU’s Security Policy

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Active Participation Despite Limited Influence:Explaining Norway’s Participation in EU’s Security Policy

Pernille Rieker

The aim of this chapter is to analyse Norway’s policy towards the European Union’s Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP). More precisely, it attempts to explain why various Norwegian governments of recent years have been willing to contribute to operations in an EU framework and to integrate into the EU’s evolving structures for security and defence cooperation despite their country’s limited access to the decision-making and/or decision-shaping process in this policy area. Norway’s influence over these processes has decreased in parallel with the acceleration of the integration process in this particular policy area. Following the launch of the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) in 1999 and later in 2009 the CSDP, Norway emphasised some important conditions that had to be met if it should continue its participation. Unsurprisingly, such conditions, set by a non-member, were not accepted by the EU. It is more surprising that this lack of real concessions did not lead to a change in Norwegian policy. Instead of becoming more reluctant to contribute to the CSDP, the Norwegian government showed an increased willingness to participate.1

The chapter starts with a short overview of the relationship between Norway and the EU and continues with an in-depth analysis of the development in the Norwegian policy towards Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and ESDP/CSDP. Finally, it proposes four complementary explanations for the Norwegian policy.

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