Reframing the Relations of Media, Knowledge, and Innovation in Society
Creativity in Learning Scenarios
JULIA WALTER-HERRMANN AND CORINNE BÜCHING
Creativity seems to operate as a basic value and attainable goal for people living in the 21st century in the western hemisphere. The 235,000,000 hits generated by the Google® search engine in response to a search of the term and the reams of advertisements for “creative life coaches,” “creative cooking,” or “creativity classes” that appear in newspapers and websites bear witness to the concern with “making everything (more) creative.” Though creativity apparently is an up-to-date, necessary component of personal success and satisfaction, the concept is not a new one, as Robert Sternberg (1998), author of the Handbook of Creativity, explains. The ancient Greeks and Romans, too, had a concept of creativity, though back then it applied to the creation of things according to strict rules and plans. In modern times, after the Industrial Revolution, we came to understand creativity in a different way: as a process of the independent creation of something (new), a process that is, first, emotionally driven rather than based on logical and analytical thought and, second, not limited to a specific scholarly field, topic, or object (Sternberg 1998).