Edited By Hans-Georg Soeffner and Dariuš Zifonun
In situations of change, individuals as well as social groups mobilize rituals to reaffirm a sense of identity. Usually thinking of rituals as fixed sets of symbolic behaviour, handed down through generations, migration forces a fresh look at rituals: that they are open to change and adjustment as well as means of social transformation. The authors show the challenge of the transformation of symbolic behaviour for those who experience spatial and social change. They emphasise that ritual change is also common when cultures become intercultural.
Intercultural Stereotypes: Ethnic Inequality as a System of Social Order in the Soccer Milieu
1. Soccer, Ethnicity, and Stratification
Soccer can be described as a world where various systems of social order overlap – moral, ethnic, legal, economic, and that of sports. This paper will focus on the aspect of ethnic inequality as a system of order that permeates other systems of social order. It is concerned with the nature of ethnic differences in the world of soccer. I will argue that those differences are not properly understood strictly along the lines of the horizontal coexistence between different ethnic groups but must be interpreted in terms of a vertical system of stratification. At the heart of the symbolic system of classification in the world of soccer is the stereotype of the ‘more hot-blooded southerner.’ I will explore the stereotype’s connotations of meaning, trace the various ways that it is used in communication, show how it relates to other ethnic attributions, and, finally, describe the socio-structural conditions in which such stereotyping occurs.
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