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From Conceptual Metaphor Theory to Cognitive Ethnolinguistics

Patterns of Imagery in Language


Marek Kuźniak, Agnieszka Libura and Michał Szawerna

The origins of this volume lie in the international conference Cognitive Linguistics in the Year 2012, convened by the Polish Cognitive Linguistics Association. The proceedings of the conference revolved around three major thematic areas: metaphorical and metonymic underpinnings of meaning in language and beyond, prototypical and gradual phenomena pertaining to linguistic categorization across the lexicogrammatical continuum, and the need for advancing theoretical tools. These recurring themes are reflected in the three-part structure of this volume, with contributions from nearly two dozen researchers exploring a broad array of linguistic as well as non-linguistic data.
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Gradation in the 'friend-enemy' opposition in English and Russian


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Gradation in the ‘friend–enemy’ opposition in English and Russian

Olga Luntcova Magnitogorsk State University


This paper deals with such concepts as duality, binary opposition, on the one hand, and gradations and gradual opposition, on the other hand. Based on the cognitive approach to the study of opposites the current research suggests that the ‘friend–enemy’ opposition, traditionally thought of as binary in English and Russian, appears to be gradual. Thus, the ‘friend–enemy’ opposition being treated both as a whole concept and a semantic field finds its expression in a number of ternary and multi-member oppositions revealing its various features.

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