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Post- and Transhumanism

An Introduction


Robert Ranisch and Stefan Lorenz Sorgner

Scientific advances in genetics, neuroscience, and artificial intelligence signal the end of our traditional concept of the human being. The most vigorous movements dealing with this ongoing crisis of humanism are posthumanism and transhumanism. While posthumanism reconsiders what it means to be human, transhumanism actively promotes human enhancement. Both approaches address the posthuman condition in the technological age. In 20 articles, written by leading scholars of the field, this volume provides the first comprehensive introduction to debates beyond humanism.
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Nietzsche: Yunus Tuncel


Yunus Tuncel

Since his death in 1900 Nietzsche’s influence on culture and thought has proliferated, as this influence has spread over many diverse interpretations of his works. Thinkers, writers, artists, and ideologues found a wealth of ideas there with which they can engage for their own needs and purposes. While writers like Gide, Shaw, Hesse, Musil, and Mann contributed to the rise of Nietzsche’s posthumous fame, painters and musicians like Kandinsky and Strauss found a source of inspiration in Nietzsche’s Dionysian philosophy. The scope of diversity of Nietzsche interpretations became acute in 1930s and 40s when thinkers like Heidegger and Bataille found a worthy philosopher in Nietzsche, while the Nazi ideologues tried to appropriate Nietzsche for their own political agenda. The post-war era, on the other hand, saw different Nietzsches, Nietzsches that were responding to the needs of a cultural transformation. Nietzsche’s call for a new type of human being, his critique of European morality and humanism, his announcement of the death of God echoed in many different circles and movements. Two of these movements are transhumanism and posthumanism (see Woodward 2011, 185–208); the former aims to seek the continuation and acceleration of the evolution of intelligent life beyond its currently human form by means of science and technology, while the latter is an attempt to critique the foundational assumptions of Western thought and culture and its outdated conceptions of human nature and to go beyond them. In this essay I will explore some of the issues...

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