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Breton Orthographies and Dialects - Vol. 1

The Twentieth-Century Orthography War in Brittany


Iwan Wmffre

Contents: The Development of Modern Breton Standards – A historical summary of the Breton orthographic debate – Dialects and Variation – Orthographies: KLT and the Vannetais - The origins of the ZH orthography - The establishment of ZH - Weisgerber and Hemon: German cultural policy towards the Breton nationalists - Wartime reactions to ZH - State teaching of Breton 1940-44 - Retrospect on the establishment of ZH - Post-war backlash - The origins and establishment of the H orthography - The reaction to H - The Hemon-Mordiern letters - A time of dissension - The origins and establishment of the SS orthography - The failure of SS - Other proposed orthographic systems since 1975 - The survival of the Vannetais standard – Ideologies: Western Brittany against the Duchy - Nationalism against regionalism - Hemon’s anti-scholarly streak - Orthographic inflexibility - Harmful repercussions of orthographic censorship on publishing and scholarship - The phonological quality of <c’h> - Quis custodiet custodies? - Criticism of the Breton of native speakers - Criticism of the Breton of learners - An orthographic quasi-monopoly: ZH since the 1980s - A clash of principles: a supradialectal or a localised base for a norm? - Problems of standardisation - Purism and neologisms.