Ethnicity is the subject of this collection of studies. The first question is whether or not, in an era criss-crossed with processes of transnational migrations, increasingly common migration-linked ethnicities differ essentially from traditional indigenous ones. Secondly, at a time when secularisation is a key feature of the globalisation and upscaling that have become paradigms for efficient future management, to what extent are counter-movements generally sparked off, sustained and advanced by religious (and to a lesser extent linguistic) emblems and structures. These questions are dealt with by means of a series of field studies among mediterranean immigrants, chinese and christian turkish refugees. The findings are compared with indigenous ethnogenesis in Transsylvania and in Spain, focussing on past christian-muslim relations and confrontations in these areas.