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Oil Producing Countries and Oil Companies

From the Nineteenth Century to the Twenty-First Century


Alain Beltran

Behind the conflicts and the crises, the agreements and the severing of ties, the oil sector is above all a global business, number one in terms of the scale of trading. The sector is not only essential to the world economy, but it is generally thought to be of strategic importance. The history of oil gives scholars the chance to track and analyse changes in the world in the twentieth century, especially through the transition from unequal trading towards more balanced solutions, in which oil-producing countries can really profit from their resources. Numerous solutions have been proposed to ensure that oil revenue is not lost, but also to ensure that profits are made and supplies are secure.
In order to examine the diversity and complexity of the recent history of the oil industry, this book considers the twentieth century across different continents, using original examples and new research on regions such as Latin America and Africa. Different views are analysed and changes in the industry are put into context. Today’s realities are brought into focus by putting the spotlight on long-term changes. The volume concludes that the oil sector has not yet fully established itself as a sector of strategic importance.
Contents: Alain Beltran: Introduction – Morgan Le Dez: France’s Oil Sources and Supply Networks (1861-1950) – Roberto Nayberg: A Few Strategic Considerations Concerning French Imports of Oil Products between 1946 and 2005 – Armelle Demagny-van Eyseren: The French Presidency, the National Companies and the First Oil Shock – Martin Chick: The Risks, Costs and Benefits of Importing Oil. Fuel Import Policy in Britain, France and the United States since 1945 – Nicolas Chigot: Research Subject. The Presence of Compagnie Française des Pétroles in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi between 1936 and 1975 – Constance Hubin: The Compagnie Française de Pétroles Faces off against the Producer Countries between 1945 and 1975 – Daniele Pozzi: Before «Mattei’s Formula»: AGIP-ENI’s Foreign Policy, 1926-1957 – Ilaria Tremolada: The Relations between Eni and Iran. 1954-1957 – Armando João Dalla Costa/José Benedito Ortiz Neto: Petrobrás, New Technologies and Oil Self-sufficiency in Brazil – Juliana Bastos Lohmann/George Landau: The Case of Petrobrás in Brazil – Marcelo Bucheli: Oil Nationalism, Property Rights, and Political Regimes. A Comparative Study of Colombia and Mexico in the Twentieth Century – Nadji Khaoua/Belgacem Madi: The Relationships between the Producing Countries and the Oil Companies in the South. The Example of SONATRACH – Nadji Khaoua/Nabila Ghafouri: Algeria’s Relationships with the Multinational Oil Companies via the New Law Concerning Hydrocarbons – Gheorghe Calcan: Concerning the Nationalisation of the Rumanian Oil Industry. The Mining Law of 1924 and its Rejoinders of 1929 and 1937 – Einar Lie: The Norwegian State and the Oil Companies.