This book brings together a selection of original and predominantly archive-based studies on the local-level impact of the Marshall Plan, both on the industrial structure of a set of European countries and on American firms themselves. The book’s uniqueness lies in the originality of the contributions, in many cases stemming from recently concluded long-term research projects. While historians have concentrated on analyzing the macro-economic effects of American economic aid, its impact on Western European industry has been largely neglected. This volume will fill this gap in Marshall Plan studies. Though the Marshall Plan did not change local development paths, and in fact probably could not have done so in regions such as Ireland or Southern Italy, it offered an opportunity for industrial renewal in regions and countries with a solid and long-established industrial base, such as Northern Italy and France.