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The "Unacceptables"

American Foundations and Refugee Scholars between the Two Wars and after


Giuliana Gemelli

Originating from a workshop organized by the Adriano Olivetti Foundation (Rome), in the framework of an international research program on «The Role of American Foundations in Europe (1920s -1990s)», this book aims to fill a gap in the social history of sciences, combining two research approaches, which had been developed as separate fields of analysis: the study of American and European co-operation in science policies, particularly in what concerns the funding of scientific programs, and the role of émigrés scholars in strengthening American and international research. The book is focused on the exploration of the role of the Rockefeller Foundation, in a dramatic period of the intellectual history of Europe, from the perspective of the recipients of grants, in its premises and effects on scientific processes as well as on individual paths and careers. From this point of view, it intends to stimulate the exploration of cross-cultural phenomena, which represent an uncertain dimension between strategy as a project and strategy as a conduct, and are shaped by situations and circumstances as well as by the stream of individual actions.
Contents: Giuliana Gemelli: Introduction. Scholars in Adversity and Science Policies (1933-1945) – Claus-Dieter Krohn: American Foundations and Refugee Scholars between the Two Wars – Christian Fleck: Long-Term Consequences of Short-Term Fellowships – Reinhard Siegmund-Schultze: Rockefeller Support for Mathematicians Fleeing from the Nazi Purge – Rosario J. Tosiello: Max Ascoli: A Lifetime of Rockefeller Connections – Paola Zambelli: Refugee Philosophers. «An Émigré’s Career»: Koyré at the New School for Social Research – Paola Zambelli: Refugee Philosophers. «The Gulf between Continental and Analytical Philosophy» as Registered in H. Spiegelberg’s Interviews – Diane Dosso: The Rescue of French Scientists. Respective Roles of the Rockefeller Foundation and the Biochemist Louis Rapkine (1904-1948) – Pnina G. Abir-Am: The Rockefeller Foundation and Refugee Biologists: European and American Careers of Leading RF Grantees from England, France, Germany, and Italy – Giuliana Gemelli: Permanent Connections: Paul Lazarsfeld, American Foundations and Europe (1930s-1960s) – Giovanni Paoloni: Vito Volterra and the International Board of Education. A Correspondence (1924-1930) – Albert Mueller: Uses of Adversity: Considering Structures, Networks, and Coincidence in the Context of Alexander Gerschenkron’s Emigrations and Career.