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Indirect and Direct Aggression

Edited By Karin Österman

Indirect and Direct Aggression consists of 24 chapters written by distinguished scholars within the field of aggression research, covering indirect aggression, bullying in schools, adult bullying, and societal and biological aspects of aggression. Indirect aggression is the most typical form of aggression used by women in most cultures. It is an aggressive strategy that is carried out by means of social manipulation that enables the perpetrator to go unnoticed and thereby escape retaliation. Knowledge about indirect aggression and its mechanisms is crucial for all anti-bullying efforts, among children and adults alike. Although briefly covered in early research on human aggression, the study of indirect aggression originates, beginning from the mid-1980s, from a research group in Finland, lead by Professor Kaj Björkqvist of Åbo Akademi University. The book can be used as a textbook at university level.

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