The main aim of this book is to highlight the worsening situation of children on the African continent, where the number of street children is increasing from day to day. Besides, this book discusses the issue of HIV/AIDS and how it affects the lives of African children. It offers useful suggestions and valuable proposals on how to deal with these problems. Based on the research the author made, he decided on Sudan, Kenya, Uganda as well as Zambia as countries of case studies. About 70 percent of the adults are living with HIV/AIDS disease. 80 percent of the children in Africa live with HIV/AIDS. In recent years, 2.2 million Africans died as a result of HIV/AIDS infections. This indicates that the disease is one of the major threats to the economic and social development in Africa. This book investigates the causes and recommends possible solutions to the problem of children and child soldiers in the world and in Africa in particular.