At present in European and American civil society a new paradigm of doing not only philosophy, psychology and sociology, but also religiology and theology is emerging: communicative action. A new communicative political theology, including a critical religiology, is arising. Its central theme is the theodicy problem. The present study approaches this theme in the framework of a critical religiology and communicative political theology narratively as well as discoursively. In search for a solution to the theodicy problem, we explore with the help of critical theorists from M. Horkheimer over W. Benjamin and Th. W. Adorno to J. Habermas and of political theologians from J. B. Metz over H. Peukert to E. Arens the philosophical and theological constellation of justice, love, freedom and reconciliation. This study follows the dialectical method: determinate negation - affirmation through negation of negation.