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Jews and Christians in Roman-Byzantine Palestine

History, Daily Life and Material Culture

Joshua Schwartz

The history and everyday lives of Jews and Christians in Roman-Byzantine Palestine were both separate and intertwined from the time of Jesus and afterwards. At first, it was not always easy to tell Jew and Christian apart and even when their ways parted, many aspects of their respective societies and material culture were similar and often indistinguishable from one another. Beliefs might have evolved differently, there may have been tension between the communities, particularly over Jerusalem and the meaning of its Temple, and Jews and Christians did engage in theological polemics, but their daily lives intersected and when it came to dress, recreation, leisure, and pets, they were often the same. Jews cannot be understood without Christians nor can Christians of ancient Palestine be understood without Jews. Separate, but together, different, but often identical. This work includes the previously-published collected studies of the author on Jews and Christians in Roman-Byzantine Palestine.

Vol I: Christianity and Jerusalem – Introduction to Volumes I-II – List of Original Place of Publication, Volumes I-II – Part 1: Christianity: Jesus and the Apostles, Christians vs Jews, The Land and the Christians – Section 1: Jesus and the Apostles – Chapter 1: Jesus the "Material Jew" – Chapter 2: Temple and Temple Mount in the Book of Acts: Early Christian Activity, Topography and Halachah – Chapter 3: Peter and Ben Stada in Lydda – Chapter 4: How Jewish to be Jewish? Self-Identity and Jewish Christians in First Century CE Palestine – Chapter 5: Methodological Remarks on ‘Jewish’ Identity: Jews, Jewish Christians and Prolegomena on Pauline Judaism – Chapter 6: Teaching Jesus in a Halakhic Jewish Setting in Israel: Kosher, Treif or Pareve – Section 2: Christians vs Jews – Chapter 7: When Rabbi Eliezer was Arrested for Heresy (with Peter J. Tomson) – Chapter 8: The Encaenia of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, The Temple of Solomon and the Jews – Chapter 9: Gallus, Julian and Anti-Christian Polemic in Pesikta Rabbati – Chapter 10: Treading the Grapes of Wrath: The Wine Press in Ancient Jewish and Christian Tradition – Chapter 11: A Holy People in the Winepress: Treading the Grapes and Holiness – Chapter 12: The Book’s the Thing: Roll versus Codex and the Marketing of Judaism and Christianity – Chapter 13: Material Culture in the Land of Israel : Monks and Rabbis on Clothing and Dress in the Byzantine Period – Section 3: The Land and the Christians – Chapter 14: John the Baptist, The Wilderness and the Samaritan Mission – Chapter 15: "The Lord's Field": Galgala, Jericho and Jerusalem and the Polemics of the Byzantine Period – Chapter 16: The Deserts of Palestine: Wilderness in the Thought of the Rabbis and the Desert Fathers: Geographic Reality and the Crisscrossing of Motifs – Chapter 17: Sinai—Mountain and Desert: The Desert Geography and Theology of the Rabbis and Desert Fathers – Part 2: Jerusalem – Section 1: Reconstructing the Temple – Chapter 18: The Temple in Jerusalem: Birah and Baris in Archaeology and Literature – Chapter 19: Once More on the Nicanor Gate – Chapter 20: Are the 'Halachic Temple Mount' and the 'Outer Court' of Josephus one and the Same? – Chapter 21: Notes on the Virtual Reconstruction of the Herodian Period Temple and Courtyards (with Yehoshua Peleg) – Chapter 22: Prolegomena on a New Reconstruction of the Herodian Temple: Virtual Reality and Josephus (with Yehoshua Peleg) – Section 2: The Temple Cult – Chapter 23: The Temple Cult Without the Sages: Prolegomena on the Description of the Second Temple Period Cult according to the Sources of the Second Temple Period – Chapter 24: Sacrifice Without the Rabbis: Ritual and Sacrifice in the Second Temple Period according to the Sources of the Second Temple Period – Chapter 25: To Stand-Perhaps To Sit: Sitting and Standing in the Azarah – Chapter 26: On Birds, Rabbis and Skin Disease – Chapter 27: Bar Qatros and the Priestly Families of Jerusalem – Volume II: History, Society and the Land of the Jews – Part 1: Geography and CommunitySection 1: Judaea and the Land of Israel – Chapter 1: Jubilees, Bethel and the Temple of Jacob – Chapter 2: The Morphology of Roman Lydda – Chapter 3: Lod: An Historical Survey from the Persian through Byzantine Period – Chapter 4: Lod of the Yavne Period: How a City was Cheated out of its Persian – Chapter 5: Yavne Revisited: Jewish ‘Survival’ in the Wake of the War of Destruction – Chapter 7: On Priests and Jericho in the Second Temple Period – Chapter 8: On Mattathias and the Desert of Samaria – Chapter 9: Southern Judaea and Babylonia – Chapter 10: Sinai in Jewish Thought and Tradition – Section 2: The Jewish Community: Tension, Strife and Harmony – Chapter 11: Lessons from Inter-Communal Conflict during the Second Temple Period – Chapter 12: Tension between Palestinian Scholars and Babylonian Olim in Amoraic Palestine – Chapter 13: Babylonian Commoners in Amoraic Palestine – Chapter 14: Aliyah from Babylonia during the Amoraic Period (200-500 C. E.) – Chapter 15: The Patriotic Rabbi: Babylonian Scholars in Roman Period Palestine – Part 2: Daily LifeSection 1: Material Culture – Chapter 16: The Realities of Material Culture in Jewish Society in Roman Palestine – Chapter 17: 'Reduce, Reuse and Recycle' – Prolegomena on Breakage and Repair in Ancient Jewish Society: Broken Beds and Chairs in Mishnah Kelim – Chapter 18: A Child’s Cart – Section 2: Recreation, Leisure, Toys and Games – Chapter 19: Play and Games – Chapter 20: Ishmael at Play: On Exegesis and Jewish Society – Chapter 21: Aspects of Leisure-Time Activities in Roman Period Palestine – Chapter 22: Jew and Non-Jew in the Roman Period in Light of Their Play, Games, and Leisure-Time Activities – Chapter 23: Ball Playing in Ancient Jewish Society: The Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine Periods – Chapter 24: Gambling in Ancient Jewish Society – Chapter 25: Jews at the Dicing Table: Gambling in Ancient Jewish Society Revisited – Section 3: Animals: Courtyard, House, Courtyard and Field – Chapter 26: Pigeon Flyers in Ancient Jewish SocietyChapter 27: Dog, ‘Water’ and Wall – Chapter 28: Dogs in Ancient Jewish Rural Society – Chapter 29: Dogs in Jewish Society in the Second Temple Period and in the Time of the Mishnah and Talmud – Chapter 30: Good Dog-Bad Dog: Jews and Their Dogs in Ancient Jewish Society – Chapter 31: Cats in Ancient Jewish Society