The aim of the book is to present the issues of central importance to the Islamic World. This diverse area faces a lot of difficulties and challenges regarding ethnic and religious conflicts as well as political and economic instability. The authors of the book address the topic from the perspectives of international security, foreign policy, economy, energy policy and regional studies and aim to depict the most suitable examples of crucial dilemmas of the Islamic World in the 21st century. The authors represent the variety of academic institutions and scientific disciplines including political science, international relations, economics and sociology. They apply a wide-selection of qualitative and quantitative methods to perform their research. As a result of this work, this book contributes to the research on the Middle East, South Asia and North Africa.