Africa in 21st Century US and EU Agendas

A Comparative Analysis

by Lola Raich (Author)
©2016 Monographs 250 Pages
Series: Internationale Sicherheit, Volume 11


This book investigates issues pertaining to the US and EU agendas in Africa since the dawn of the new century. It discusses how the African continent has featured within the US and EU foreign policy agendas, by looking at ensuing gaps between a rhetoric that claimed to have put Africa within the high politics agenda and the reality. The case studies analyse the reasons for the very different acknowledgements of USAFRICOM and JAES P&S, even though both policies state to aim the same: support Africa in tackling its own security concerns. The book concludes with a deliberation on which of the two outlooks seems to offer an appropriate approach to the context and which offers pragmatic solutions.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author(s)/editor(s)
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Table of Contents
  • Foreword and Acknowledgements
  • Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • Introduction
  • The Standing Up of AFRICOM
  • The Standing Up of JAES P&S
  • New Conceptualisations and Paradigm Changes
  • Human Security & Security-Development Nexus
  • Regionalisation and Security
  • Hard/Soft/Smart & Civilian/Normative Power
  • From hard through soft to smart power
  • Of EU’s civilian and normative power
  • Theoretical and Methodological Framework
  • Outline of the Book
  • Africa’s ‘Awakening’
  • Mega Challenges and Trends in Africa
  • AU: African Security Redefined
  • US Foreign Policy Since 2000
  • The 21st Century Agenda of the United States of America in Africa
  • US Security Engagement in Africa
  • US Energy Interests in Africa
  • US Aid and Trade Policies in Africa
  • The President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR)
  • The African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA)
  • The Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC)
  • US Policies in Advancing Democratisation and Good Governance in Africa
  • US Record on Environmental, Food Security and Demographics Policies in Africa
  • US’ Stance on China into Africa
  • Concluding Remarks on The US 21st Century Agenda in Africa
  • Case Study 1: US AFRICOM
  • Change in The Unified Command Plan
  • Headquarters Location
  • AFRICOM’s Mission: A CCMD ‘Plus’?
  • AFRICOM, Security & The Security – Development Nexus
  • AFRICOM & Unilateralism vs. Multilateralism
  • AFRICOM and its Strong Inter-Agency Structure
  • Concluding Remarks
  • EU Within The 21st Century International Arena
  • Of The Legal and The Organisational Debate
  • Of The Agency Versus Structure Debate
  • Of EU Actorness and Social Constructivism
  • The European Union in Africa
  • At The Search of an EU-Africa Strategic Framework
  • The European Union Policies in Africa
  • The EU Peace and Security Agenda in Africa
  • The EU Democratic Governance and Human Rights Agenda in Africa
  • The EU Regional Integration and Trade Agenda in Africa
  • The EU Millennium Development Goals Agenda in Africa
  • The EU Energy and Climate Change Agenda in Africa
  • The EU Migration Agenda in Africa
  • EU’s Stance on China into Africa
  • Concluding remarks on EU’s 21st Century Agenda in Africa
  • Case Study 2: The JAES P&S Partnership
  • The Joint Africa EU Strategy – Peace and Security Partnership
  • Why Engage in Africa?
  • Conceptualisation of Security & Securitisation of External Borders
  • Security Development Nexus
  • The African Continent as a Test Case for EU’s Peace and Security Capacities
  • Multilateralism and JAES P&S
  • Europeanisation of EU MS Africa Peace and Security Policies
  • Inter-Institutional & Inter-Pillar Coordination: From a Pre- & Post-Lisbon Treaty Point of View
  • Concluding Remarks
  • Conclusion
  • References & Selected Bibliography

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Foreword and Acknowledgements

As the title itself foretells, this book connects three continents: Europe, North America and Africa. My motivation to research on and write about Africa is directly related to the fascination I think to have always felt for this continent and its people. It has compelled in me a desire to learn about and study issues of relevance to the African continent, which this book partly covers. The knowledge I have gained from my studies, but also from consequent stays, freelance researches and visits to the relevant institutions involved in the decision-making of US and EU foreign policies, respectively, proved indispensable for this research effort.

This book, which in 2008 started as a dissertation, has been thoroughly updated to include new developments and is the result of a comprehensive research work and information gained from contacts from the three continents. My gratitude is due to all the persons I contacted for the, sometimes lengthy, discussions on US and EU agendas in Africa. I owe greatly to all of them that shared their knowledge and supported me throughout my research effort.

Many thanks to Univ.-Prof. Dr. Heinz Gärtner for the offer and support of publishing my research within the outstanding book series ‘international security’ edited by him. The same applies to the publishing house, Peter Lang International Academic Publishers.

My deep gratitude goes to Emeritus Prof. Dr. Bernhard Möller for his cheerful optimism and encouragement.

Above all, my thankfulness is due to my family. To my parents, Dalip Cako and Duhije Abazi, who believe in me. A big, fat thank you to my husband, Dr. Ted Raich, for the endless trust he puts on all endeavours I undertake, this effort included. I am grateful for his confidence and the tireless support he gave me day-in day-out, for the encouragement when it was needed and for the understanding when work lacked behind. This book is dedicated to him.

Notwithstanding all the support given, the responsibility for remaining errors and shortcomings in this work rests with me alone.

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Acronyms and Abbreviations


ISBN (Hardcover)
Publication date
2016 (April)
Normative Power Peace and Security Comparative Politics International Relations
Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Wien, 2016. 250 pp., 1 graph

Biographical notes

Lola Raich (Author)

Lola Raich has studied in UK, US, Italy and Austria. She teaches graduate and undergraduate classes at the Political Sciences Department, University of Vienna. Her teaching/research interests include Comparative Politics, Regional/International Security, as well as EU/US peace and security agendas.


Title: Africa in 21st Century US and EU Agendas
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252 pages