Twentieth-Century Borrowings from German to English

Their Semantic Integration and Contextual Usage

by Julia Schultz (Author)
Monographs 374 Pages


While there are plenty of studies on the impact English has exerted on the German language, the reverse contact situation has been relatively neglected. This monograph sets out to shed light on the German influence on the English lexicon in the twentieth century. It provides the first systematic appraisal of the semantic integration and contextual usage of the words adopted from German in the past few decades. The results presented in this study are based on the evaluation of a comprehensive lexicographical corpus of 1958 twentieth century German borrowings retrieved from the Oxford English Dictionary Online. The present-day usage of the borrowings is illustrated with linguistic documentary evidence collected from a wide range of English language corpora.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author(s)/editor(s)
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Contents
  • Symbols and Abbreviations
  • Chapter One Introduction
  • 1. Studies of the German influence on English during the twentieth century
  • 2. Aims and methodology of the present investigation
  • 2.1 The OED as a source of German borrowings
  • 2.2 Aims
  • 2.3 Methodology
  • 2.4 Terminology employed in the present study
  • Chapter Two Areas and Spheres of Life Influenced by German in the Twentieth Century
  • 1. Culture and History
  • 2. Leisure and Pleasure
  • 3. Technology
  • 4. Gastronomy
  • 5. The Fine Arts and Crafts
  • 6. People and Everyday Life
  • 7. Mathematics and the Humanities
  • 8. Civilisation and Politics
  • 9. The Natural Sciences
  • 10. Miscellaneous
  • Chapter Three Summary and Conclusion
  • 1. The chronological distribution of twentieth century German borrowings
  • 2. The semantic analysis of German borrowings
  • 3. The pragmatic-contextual use and the stylistic functions of German borrowings
  • 4. The present status of German vis-à-vis English
  • Appendix
  • 1. Twentieth century German borrowings in the OED
  • 2. Twentieth century German borrowings in EFL dictionaries
  • Bibliography
  • Glossary

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Symbols and Abbreviations

In this study, the following symbols and abbreviations will be used:

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Chapter One

While there are plenty of surveys on the impact English has exerted on the German language, the reverse situation has received fairly little attention. German words and meanings that have been taken over into English in the recent past have been neglected in previous studies. The present monograph sets out to provide significant insights into the influence of German on the English lexicon in the twentieth century. The various German borrowings1 which entered English during that time will be divided into different semantic fields to offer an overview of the variety of areas and spheres of life enriched by German in the last few decades.

Until the release of Pfeffer’s 1987 work Deutsches Sprachgut im Wortschatz der Amerikaner und Engländer, which provides a historical overview of over 3000 German words adopted into British and American English since 1500, most book length investigations of the influence of German on the English lexicon came to the conclusion that German was a comparatively minor donor language. The borrowings were believed to be relatively few, and the majority of them were classified as technical terms unknown to the “average” speaker of English. Stanforth (1994, 1) draws attention to the fact that

Daß die deutsche Sprache im zwanzigsten Jahrhundert – und besonders nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg – viele Anglizismen übernommen hat, ist allgemein bekannt. Weniger bekannt dagegen ist die Tatsache, daß es einen (freilich weniger intensiven) Gegenstrom von deutschen Wörtern gibt, die in die umgekehrte Richtung entlehnt werden.

Die ersten Entlehnungen aus dem Deutschen erfolgten im 16. Jahrhundert, und in den darauffolgenden Jahrhunderten stieg ihre Zahl, um im 19. und im 20. Jahrhundert einen Höhepunkt zu erreichen. Dieser sprachliche Austausch dauert noch heute an. Er bildet einen Teil des normalen kulturellen Kontakts zwischen der deutschsprachigen und der englischsprachigen Welt und spiegelt oft die Beziehungen zwischen diesen beiden Welten wider. Neben den internationalen Entlehnungsbahnen treten im Falle des Amerikanischen-Englischen (AE) die sprachlichen Berührungen zwischen den Amerikanern und den deutschsprachigen Einwanderern hinzu. Viele der deutschen Wörter, die das AE aus der Sprache der deutschen Einwanderer übernommen hat, sind dann zusammen mit anderen Amerikanismen ins Britisch-Englische (BE) gelangt.← 11 | 12 →

The present study will examine the language-contact scenario between German and English in the past century in much more depth than prior investigations. As will be seen, new media such as dictionaries and corpora available in electronic form will serve as valuable sources to identify and survey the various twentieth century borrowings from German, their semantic development, and their contextual usage in present day English.

I shall begin with an overview of the previous studies of the German influence on English in the twentieth century. This is followed by a detailed description of the aims and methodology of the present analysis.

1. Studies of the German influence on English during the twentieth century

The investigations of the history of the English language and its development by Foster (1968, 81 ff.), Potter (1975, 66–67), Bolton (1982, 350–351), Beal (2004, 29–32), Baugh and Cable (2013, 296), Algeo and Acevedo Butcher (2014, 289–291), and van Gelderen (2014, 224–227) include a comparatively small proportion of twentieth century borrowings from German. These studies offer some isolated examples of recent German borrowings in English. Recurrent examples are the comparatively common terms angst, kitsch, wanderlust, lebensraum, gestalt, and Blitzkrieg. These words seem to have been retrieved from general studies on the structure of the English lexicon and from dictionaries, such as Bliss’ Dictionary of Foreign Words and Phrases (1966) and the OED.

The works by Carr (1934), Albrecht (1949), Stanforth (1974, 1976, 1984, 1990, 1996, 2009), Mühlmann (1984a, 1984b), Lehnert (1988), Pfeffer and Cannon (1994), Stubbs (1997) Cannon (1998), and Schröter and Leuschner (2013) should be mentioned here, as they cover, to some degree at least, lexical borrowing which took place in the twentieth century:

Only a small section of Carr’s (1934: 82–89) study is dedicated to borrowings that came from German into English in the first three decades of the twentieth century, such as flammenwerfer and kinderspiel. The author divides the various borrowings, most of which are collected from the OED, into different semantic categories, such as geology, chemistry, physics, medicine, philology, philosophy, psychology, music, politics, and the military.

Albrecht (1949) looks at German borrowings that have been added to English dictionaries such as the third edition of the Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English and the fifth edition of Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, both of which were released in 1944. One might presume that the supplementary list of new additions to these two dictionaries includes a significant proportion of German ← 12 | 13 → derived terms referring to the Third Reich and the Second World War, and this assumption is indeed correct: examples of German borrowings identified by Albrecht are Gestapo, gauleiter, Sturmabteilung, and blitzkrieg.

Stanforth, a leading scholar concerning the impact of German on English, has devoted himself to research on this topic since the late 1960s. Stanforth’s (1974) article, for instance, seeks to measure the extent of the German impact on the British press. The author collects German elements that occur in BE newspapers (mainly in The Times and The Observer) since the release of the one volume supplement of the OED in 1933. In all, Stanforth retrieves 151 lexical items included in different newspaper editions from 1968 to 1974, among them a number of twentieth century German borrowings which appear to be known to the “ordinary” speaker of English (e.g. autobahn, putsch, diktat, realpolitik, bratwurst). Stanforth (1974: 336) summarises the development of the borrowing process of German words as illustrated by the British press as follows:

To assess the frequency of the German words included in his sample, Stanforth examines their occurrence in The Observer over a three month period (i.e. from June to August 1972). Yet this method, as Stanforth himself admits, does not reveal significant tendencies (apart from the fact that very few German words such as the noun Reich appear more than once in the documentary evidence).

Stanforth (1976) provides a statistical analysis of the German borrowings included in 65 weekly editions of the Sunday newspaper The Observer published from June 4 1972 to August 26 1973. The author points out that his assessment is based on all the (obvious) German words that can be identified in the aforementioned newspaper editions, without regard to their degree of naturalisation and regardless of the date of their introduction into English. His analysis thus lists borrowings that are not or only slightly assimilated such as gastarbeiter, representing a comparatively new import from German, and words that are anglicised such as cobalt, which was taken over into English in 1683. Stanforth differentiates between three categories of loan influences, i.e. what he refers to as loanwords (e.g. zeitgeist), loanblends (such as the hybrid formation housefrau) and loancompounds, for instance angstridden. His study compiled in this way comprises a collection of 313 lexical items, of which 20 occurred several times, among them some twentieth century borrowings from politics such as Nazi and Ostpolitik. ← 13 | 14 →

Stanforth’s (1984) paper offers an historical account of the language contact of German and English, and lists political, cultural, social, etc. factors that might have led to the assumption of German words. He rightly points out that the “German influence on the English vocabulary started around 1520 as a direct result of the Reformation, and it has continued up to the present time” (1984: 114). In his 1990 article, Stanforth concentrates on the semantic assimilation of German borrowings in BE. The results presented in Stanforth’s paper belong to his more comprehensive investigation of the German impact on English from 1996. The data on which his project is based includes 832 German derived words retrieved from the OED (i.e. the text of the OED published between 1884 and 1928) and its supplementary volume from 1933, as well as an additional corpus of 318 words excerpted from the press in the period from 1970 to 1990. The four volume supplements to the OED, edited by Burchfield between 1972 and 1986, were consulted but not systematically checked by Stanforth. In all, the number of German borrowings collected in this manner amounts to 1160 lexical items. The results of Stanforth’s research project are presented in detail in his book Deutsche Einflüsse auf den englischen Wortschatz in Geschichte und Gegenwart (1996), which also comprises a short overview of the German impact on AmE by Eichhoff. A small part of this book is devoted to borrowing in the twentieth century (1996: 58–63). Stanforth only identifies 114 twentieth century German borrowings, which he assigns to six subject areas, i.e. to politics (32 borrowings), cuisine (13 borrowings), war (10 borrowings), poetry, theatre and art (9 borrowings), music (6 borrowings), and economy (4 borrowings). In addition, there are 40 miscellaneous lexical items that, according to Stanforth, do not clearly fall into a particular area, such as, the words schlamperei and lederhosen.

Stanforth’s 2009 article concentrates on the influence of German science and technology that has resulted in the adoption of a significant number of technical terms in the history of English. A small section of Stanforth’s paper focuses on the phonological, semantic, and morphological integration of German borrowings and their use in English. Stanforth points out that in the twentieth century, a general decline in borrowing is manifested. He lists several selective examples of twentieth century German borrowings, ranging from natural science terms (e.g. bakelite), words related to the fine arts (e.g. bildungsroman, gebrauchsmusik), culinary terms (e.g. bockwurst), to lexical items which have to do with the First and Second World Wars, such as to strafe, U-boat and luftwaffe (2009, 44–45).

Mühlmann (1984a) provides a historical analysis of the German impact on BE and AmE. According to Mühlmann (1984a, 366), his survey “is designed to convey more detailed knowledge about the interlingual relationship between our ← 14 | 15 → countries to German pupils.” He is thus assuming a didactic methodological point of view by providing interesting and important details on the various language contact situations that led to a mutual exchange of linguistic material between Germany and English speaking countries. The linguistic evidence offered in Mühlmann’s survey is collected from English dictionaries, a number of studies on the German impact on English, as well as from several different, additional sources, such as literary texts, for instance (ranging from works by Joyce, Carlyle, Huxley, and Hemingway), newspaper articles (e.g. The Observer, Time Magazine), television, and radio programmes. The borrowings under investigation are divided into major semantic fields, such as philosophy, linguistics, music, art and architecture, the natural sciences, and politics. Mühlmann analyses the word material from different perspectives. He looks, for instance, at the frequency of the various borrowings, their degree of naturalisation, their semantic development, and the word formations that are based on German derived items. Moreover, he offers a comparison of their use in BE and AmE. It goes without saying that Mühlmann’s study provides important insights into German words borrowed into English throughout the ages. Yet, since he does not focus on twentieth century borrowings, his analysis only represents a tour d’horizon of the multitude of German words and meanings that entered English in recent times.

While Stanforth’s aforementioned paper from 1976 includes a statistical evaluation of 65 editions of The Observer published from June 1972 to August 1973, Mühlmann’s (1984b) article examines 140 German items collected from 51 editions of the newspaper that appeared in one year, i.e. from January to December 1981. Mühlmann investigates his sample of German words by taking various aspects into consideration, such as, the occurrence and frequency of the various items according to the newspaper section in which they are attested, their meaning and use in the relevant context(s), their spelling, and their stylistic function. Another important objective of his study is to determine the proportion of German words which have been recorded in dictionaries, such as the New English Dictionary on Historical Principles, released in fascicles between 1884 and 1928, the 1933 supplement to the OED edited by Burchfield, and Webster’s New World Dictionary of the American Language from 1953.

Lehnert (1988) analyses German borrowings in the four supplementary volumes to the OED published by Burchfield. He identifies the most important areas in which current German borrowings can be found, for example, cooking, wine, German derived terms for mentalities, traditions, institutions, and concepts for which no English equivalent exists, etc. His article also includes an alphabetical list ← 15 | 16 → of all the current German words, phrases, and loan translations found in Burchfield’s supplements.

Pfeffer and Cannon’s impressive book German Loanwords in English: An Historical Dictionary (1994) represents a revised and expanded update of Pfeffer’s (1987) work. It consists of 5380 German borrowings taken from a broad variety of sources, ranging from the second edition of the OED2 from 1989, Webster’s Third and Webster’s Second, to dictionaries of new words such as, for instance, Ayto’s 1989 and 1990 volumes of the Longman Register of New Words, and Mort’s Longman Guardian of New Words (1986). The earliest word in Pfeffer and Cannon’s corpus is snorkle, first attested in 1346 in English. According to the authors, its German source term originally comes from the language of mysticism. The latest borrowing in the large bulk of lexical items is wallpecker, which entered English in the context of the reunification of Germany in 1989 (1994: introduction, xxi). Pfeffer and Cannon’s collection of borrowings is arranged according to subject fields and presented alphabetically in the dictionary section. As to the proportion of borrowings in the different fields, the authors point out that:

The present investigation will give a rounded picture of the distribution of the twentieth century borrowings in the different subject fields enriched by German in the last few decades. We will see that some of the areas outlined by Pfeffer and Cannon also contain a relatively high percentage of recent borrowings from German.

Stubbs’ (1997) essay Angst and the Zeitgeist: Notes on German words in English includes a critical analysis of computer based methodologies for investigating vocabulary by taking the example of a small case study about German borrowings taken over into English since 1900. For his study, Stubbs used the 1989 edition of the OED2 searchable on CD-ROM, the specialised dictionary of German borrowings compiled by Pfeffer in 1987, and the Collins Cobuild English Dictionary from 1995. Stubbs outlines that the proportion of words recently adopted from German is greater than is generally assumed and adduces selected examples of twentieth century borrowings, such as the direct loans diktat and spritzer, and rainforest, a loan translation of the German Regenwald. In addition, he outlines the limitations of the OED software: according to Stubbs, a careful evaluation of the OED data is required since it may comprise false matches as well as indirect ← 16 | 17 → loans, i.e. words which are not immediately derived from German but from another language, such as Yiddish (1997: 135). Furthermore, the author emphasises that the data collected from OED2 encompasses a significant number of technical terms which are not included in general purpose dictionaries such as the Cobuild 1995 edition, which points to the fact that the native speaker of English may not be familiar with these words.

Cannon (1998) examines 253 German borrowings whose first attested use in written English dates from 1950 to 1993. The lexical items presented in his paper were collected from various standard sources (e.g. Webster’s Third New International Dictionary of the English Language (1961) and the OED) and dictionaries of new words, such as the Longman Register of New Words (1989–90). Cannon outlines six major subject fields to which German added new words in the second half of the twentieth century: politics, business, geology, food, health, and zoology. Within the subject fields, the author distinguishes between the different types of loan influences (e.g. loan translations, partial translations, etc.). In addition, he examines word formations that are based on a German borrowing, such as the compound angst-wrought.

The essay entitled “Historical Germanisms in British newspapers. A discourse-analytic approach and four corpus-assisted case-studies” by Schröter and Leuschner from 2013 represents one of the few recent investigations of the German impact on English. The authors analyse the use of four German words (i.e. Anschluss, Blitzkrieg, Endlösung, and Drang nach Osten) in various British newspapers published after 1989, such as The Independent, The Observer, and The Daily Telegraph. Schröter and Leuschner point out that the word Blitzkrieg, for instance, which was originally borrowed from German in the context of the Second World War, occurs in a more general meaning in English. For example, it may also refer to the golf wars (Schröter and Leuschner 2013, 161).

Needless to say, the works mentioned above are very informative and provide essential insights into the impact of German on English. In the present study, however, the language contact scenario between German and English during the past few decades will be researched more intensively and comprehensively.

Some studies focus on the impact of German on different varieties of English. Bieswanger’s (2004) investigation, for instance, constitutes a comparatively recent analysis of German borrowings in Australian English. German words and phrases have also modified language use in America due to the immigration of German people. Foster (1968, 83–84) summarises the history of German settlement in the United States and the development of the linguistic situation as follows: ← 17 | 18 →

The main origin of the early German words in AmE was the region of Eastern Pennsylvania with a considerable proportion of German settlers speaking Pennsylvania German, a dialectal variant of Standard German. As will be seen in the present investigation, some borrowings from the varieties of German, such as Pennsylvania German, also found their way into the English language in the twentieth century.

The German presence in the United States has inspired a number of studies on the German influence on AmE, for instance the works by Koenig (1943), Schönfelder (1957), Eichhoff (1971, 1972), and Kann (1974, 1977, 1982, 2000) to name but a few.2 Koenig’s (1943) survey investigates the borrowing of German words into AmE between 1930 and 1940. Koenig provides a list of German borrowings collected from three publications, the Sunday Edition of the New York Times, Time, the weekly news magazine, and The Reader’s Digest. He comes to the conclusion that:

THE DECADE 1930–1940 provided new color for our language. One of the foreign tongues which gave perhaps more than any other to the everyday language of the average American was German, for although America has looked with disfavor upon Hitler our people have paid close attention to the strange phenomena of Modern Germany and the vocabulary descriptive of that country (Koenig 1943, 486). ← 18 | 19 →

It is thus not surprising that an essential number of German borrowings which occurred in the various sources analysed by Koenig refer to the Nazi regime and the Third Reich, for instance Gestapo, Führer, and the interjection heil.

Schönfelder’s (1957) monograph comprises three major parts: part one constitutes a historical analysis of the origin, number, and distribution of German speakers in the United States. Part II is concerned with the German borrowings which entered AmE throughout the centuries, and part III deals with the impact of German on AmE word formations. Schönfelder provides an overview of various areas and spheres of life enriched by German down the ages. His findings are based on the total stock of borrowings that entered AmE as a result of the language contact with German. His book lists at least some words the OED classifies as twentieth century borrowings. Examples are the nouns wanderlust, bratwurst, and the interjection gesundheit.

Eichhoff (1971) concentrates on the phonological and orthographical assimilation of German borrowings in AmE. His 1972 paper is based on a corpus of 315 German derived words and phrases collected from Time Magazine from June 1968 until June 1970, to analyse the functions of German borrowings (e.g. local colour, the creation of a typically German atmosphere, puns, etc) in the American press. Like Eichhoff (1972), Kann identifies German borrowings in various editions of Time Magazine (e.g. Götterdämmerung, autobahn, schmaltz, snorkel, and dirndl). Furthermore, there is the book entitled The German Language in America, 1683–1991, a volume edited by Salmons in 1993, encompassing seventeen papers originally presented at a conference held by the Max Kade Institute for German-American Studies in Madison, Wisconsin, in October 1991. This symposium focused on the entire spectrum of investigations of the German language in North America. It includes papers on several different aspects related to the German impact on AmE, such as historical studies on German in contact with Native American languages, difficulties in language maintenance and change, German borrowings in dictionaries of American regional English, and the development of the German language spoken in Pennsylvania and Wisconsin. These studies are illuminating in many ways but they do not offer a comprehensive count and account of all the German borrowings that were adopted into English in the twentieth century.

Algeo (1980), Tournier (1980), Faiß (1995), and Durkin (2006, 2014) explore the impact of different languages on the English vocabulary. Algeo (1980) makes an analysis of the sources of new words in present day English based on a small sample of lexical items, i.e. on 1000 words retrieved from the Barnhart Dictionary (1973). He comes to the conclusion that “French remains the language from ← 19 | 20 → which English borrows most, a position it has doubtless held since 1066” (1980, 272). Yet a comparison between the number of recent French and German borrowings recorded in the OED Online reveals that Algeo’s assumption does not hold for the twentieth century: from Schultz’s (2012) investigation, for instance, it becomes clear that in all, 1677 words and meanings are identified as twentieth century borrowings from French in the OED Online. As to the proportion of German derived words currently included in this source, the number amounts to 1958 lexical items.

For words recently assumed from German, Yiddish, French, Spanish, Italian, and Japanese, Tournier (1980) consults the Barnhart Dictionary (1973) and Webster’s 6,000 words. Tournier comes to the conclusion that of the 253 borrowings taken over from the six languages in the second half of the twentieth century, only 6.71%, i.e. 17 words were given a German etymon in the dictionaries consulted.

Faiß (1995) describes both the influence of English on the modern French and German vocabulary and the impact of German and French on present day English. His article conveys an idea of the mutual lexical borrowing between these languages by offering examples interwoven in magazines and newspapers, such as, for instance, The Times, Time Magazine or Punch. As Faiß does not concentrate on twentieth century borrowings but considers all the German items that occur in the English of today, his paper includes only a small number of borrowings that entered English in the past few decades, such as Wirtschaftswunder, angst, and to strafe.

Durkin (2006) concentrates on lexical borrowing at various stages in the history of English. He retrieves borrowings from the revised edition of the OED3 that entered English during three quarter centuries (1775–1799, 1875–1899, and 1975–1999). Durkin analyses the proportion and types of borrowings in the three samples of lexical items and states that there is an overall decrease in lexical borrowing towards the close of the twentieth century, which equally holds for the number words adopted from German. He points out that the German borrowings that are first attested between 1975 and 1999 make up at least 7% of all the lexical items that were borrowed from foreign languages during that time (2006: 29). In his outstanding book entitled Borrowed Words: A History of Loanwords in English (2014), Durkin illustrates how and to what extent succeeding periods of language contact have left their traces in the English lexicon. He stresses that borrowings from German represent an essential proportion of all the revised and new OED3 items, which were adopted from a foreign language. According to Durkin (2014: 360), “loanwords from German have the fourth highest total overall if we look just at the raw figures in those parts of OED3 so far completed.” In addition, he ← 20 | 21 → points out that an evaluation of the OED3 data suggests that borrowing from German in the history of English reaches its zenith in the second half of the nineteenth century:

Durkin also draws attention to the fact that of the samples of German borrowings investigated in his survey, no single lexical item belongs to a certain “core area” of comparatively frequent or basic words (2014: 363). As will be shown in the present investigation, only a small amount of the borrowings taken over into English in the twentieth century are part of the group of lexical items that appear to be on everyone’s lips.

The reader may observe that the results presented in some of the analyses mentioned above are based on the evaluation of a new variety of dictionary, that is, the dictionary of ‘new words,’ such as, for instance, Berg’s Dictionary of New Words in English (1953), Reifer’s Dictionary of New Words (1955), Barnhart et al.’s Dictionary of New English Since 1963 (1973, 1980, 1990), Mager et al.’s Morrow Book of New Words (1982), Mort’s Longman Guardian of New Words (1986), LeMay et al.’s New Words Dictionary (1988), the two volumes of Ayto’s Longman Register of New Words (1989/1990), Algeo et al.’s Dictionary of Neologisms (1991), Tulloch’s Oxford Dictionary of New Words (1991), Green’s New Words (1994), Fergusson’s Chambers Dictionary of Foreign Words and Phrases (1995), Knowles et al.’s Oxford Dictionary of New Words (1997), Hargraves’ New Words (2004), Speake’s Oxford Dictionary of Foreign Words and Phrases (1997/2005), and Delahunty’s Oxford Dictionary of Foreign Words and Phrases (2008). These dictionaries were compiled with the aim of documenting all the words that have recently appeared in the language. This is equally valid for Ayto’s lexicon of Twentieth-century Words from 1999. Furthermore, there are several new supplements to existing dictionaries, such as, Webster’s 6,000 Words (Kay, Mish and Woolf, 1976), Webster’s 9,000 Words (Mish et al., 1983), and Webster’s 12,000 Words (Mish, 1986), which serve as complements to the lexicon attested in the earlier editions of these dictionaries.

Durkin points out that the lexical items, which are recorded in the sources above will be added to the OED if they are in line with OED’s inclusion criteria.3 He emphasises that “the most important of these dictionaries have been read (or ← 21 | 22 → “carded”) for OED’s files, and all of them are available for consultation by OED editors.”4 The OED will thus function as the major source of the words considered in the present analysis.

As already noted, the analysis of recent developments of the English vocabulary is not exhaustive in previous studies. This survey will offer a more up to date, comprehensive, and adequate treatment of the twentieth century German borrowings to English. Let us now move on to the aims and methodology of the present study.


ISBN (Hardcover)
Publication date
2016 (August)
Language contact Lexicology Sociolinguistics Online dictionaries
Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Wien, 2016. 374 pp., 3 b/w fig.

Biographical notes

Julia Schultz (Author)

Julia Schultz studied English as well as French Language and Literature at the Universities of Heidelberg, Aberystwyth, and Paris. She completed her PhD in Linguistics on twentieth-century borrowings from French into English at Heidelberg University. She currently teaches English and German Linguistics at the University of Heidelberg.


Title: Twentieth-Century Borrowings from German to English