Exploring Globalization Opportunities and Challenges in Social Studies

Effective Instructional Approaches

by Lydiah Nganga (Volume editor) John Kambutu (Volume editor) William B. Russell III (Volume editor)
©2013 Textbook XII, 267 Pages
Series: Global Studies in Education, Volume 26


This book on global issues, trends, and practices is intended to serve primarily as an instructional and learning resource in social studies methods courses for preservice teachers. In addition, it is an effective social studies and global education resource for college faculty, graduate students, inservice educators, and other professionals because it has divergent, practical, and relevant ideas. Teaching global education is challenging. It requires an understanding of globalization and how it affects policies, reforms, and education. Therefore, this book explores real global issues in the classroom and also offers different innovative instructional strategies that educators have employed while teaching social studies courses. The volume includes detailed reviews of literature and research findings which facilitate the design of quality pertinent units and lessons plans. Indeed, this book is a critical tool to help educators and students to gain a better understanding of globalization and global education.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the Editors
  • About the Book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Contents
  • Acknowledgments
  • Preface
  • Part 1. Global Issues, Trends, Policies, Practices, and Implications
  • Chapter One: Globalization: History, Consequences and What to Do with It: John Kambutu
  • Consequences
  • Effects on Education
  • Effects on Poor Countries
  • Effects on Economic Immigration
  • How to approach globalization
  • Globalization and Social Justice
  • References
  • Chapter Two: Teachers on the Front Line of Global Migration: Catherine Cooke-Canitz
  • Acculturation and Challenges in the Public School Classroom
  • Acculturation and Teacher Stress
  • Berry’s Model of Acculturation
  • Relevance and Implications of Acculturation Orientations
  • Acculturation Strategy Selection
  • Building a Classroom Culture
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter Three: (En)countering the Paradox: Challenging the Neoliberal Immigrant Identity: Paul G. Fitchett
  • Neoliberalism, Globalization, and Education
  • The Immigrant Identity: A Neoliberal Paradox
  • Social Studies Curriculum and Textbook Promotion of Neoliberalism
  • Focusing on Community and Discourse to Counteract Neoliberal Stigmatization
  • Building a Curriculum of Community
  • Promoting Democratic Discourse
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter Four: Immigration and Global Economies in the Context of Globalization: Lydiah Nganga, Keonghee Tao Han
  • Introduction
  • Globalization and Its Worldwide Impact
  • The Interconnectedness of Globalization and Education
  • Immigration in the Absence of Comprehensive International Immigration Law
  • Immigration and Unfair Treatment of Migrants in Europe, Africa, the Middle East, and Asia
  • Multicultural Education: A Solution to Global Injustices
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter Five: Preparing Teachers for Global Citizenship: Perspectives from One Caribbean Island: Karen Thomas-Brown
  • Introduction
  • The Importance of Preparing Teachers Worldwide for Global Education (Global Issues and Trends)
  • The Context of Social Studies Classrooms
  • Policies That Affect Multiple Forms of Citizenship
  • Perspectives from One Caribbean Island: Jamaica
  • Implications for Teacher Education Programs
  • References
  • Chapter Six: Grounding Globalization: Theory, Communication, and Service-Learning: Ozum Ucok-Sayrak, Erik Garrett
  • Literature Review
  • Communication Studies and Globalization
  • Service-Learning and Global Education
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Note
  • Chapter Seven: Global Classrooms: A Contextualized Global Education: Cameron White
  • Introduction
  • Contextualizing the Global through Popular Culture
  • Global Classrooms: An Integrated Model
  • GC Houston: A Case Study
  • Extensions
  • Conclusions
  • Links, Lessons, and Applications
  • References
  • Chapter Eight: Institutional Internationalization: The Undergraduate Experience: Linda B. Bennett
  • The Global Awareness Program
  • Unpacking Study Abroad
  • The Global Understanding Course
  • The Institute for Global Studies
  • Campus Internationalization
  • Undergraduate Experiences
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter Nine: Global Citizenship and the Complexities of Genocide Education: Antonio J. Castro & Rebecca C. Aguayo
  • Collective Memory and Holocaust Education
  • Global Citizenship and Human Rights Education
  • Learning about Intolerance: The Case of Darfur
  • Resisting Genocide: Acts of Courage in Rwanda
  • Critiquing Western Influences on Genocide: Cambodia as an Outcome of International Politics
  • The Complexities of Genocide Education
  • References
  • Part 2. Global Issues and Innovative Instructional Practices for Teaching Global Education
  • Chapter Ten: Broadening Horizons: Utilizing Film to Promote Global Citizens of Character: Stewart Waters & William B. Russell III
  • Developing Global Citizens of Character Through Film
  • Russell Model for Using Film in the Classroom
  • Legal Issues
  • The Three Rs of Film Selection
  • Films for Building Global Citizens of Character in Elementary Classrooms
  • Films for Building Global Citizens of Character in Middle School Classrooms
  • Films for Building Global Citizens of Character in High School Classrooms
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Note
  • Chapter Eleven: Meeting the Challenges of Implementing Global Education in a Time of Standardization: Mirynne Igualada & Dilys Schoorman
  • Rethinking Globalization
  • Challenges to Implementing Global Education Curriculum
  • Description of the Lessons
  • Discussion of the Lessons
  • Global Education and Enhanced Student Engagement
  • Global Education: An Opportunity for Teacher Empowerment
  • Global Education: High Standards for Academic Skills
  • Global Education: An Opportunity for Counter-Hegemonic Praxis
  • Implications for the Classroom
  • References
  • Chapter Twelve: Definition Devolution: Allowing Students to Redefine and Rename Citizenship and Civic Engagement: Emma K. Humphries & Elizabeth Yeager Washington
  • Diverse Perspectives on Twenty-First-Century Citizenship and Civic Engagement
  • A Five-Step Lesson Plan for Redefining and Renaming Citizenship and Civic Engagement
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter Thirteen: Hearing a Chorus of Voices: Globalizing the U.S. History Curriculum with Historical Empathy: Joseph O’Brien & Jason L. Endacott
  • Heritage versus History Approach to U.S. History Curriculum
  • Historical Empathy and the Narrativeof Diverse Peoples, Not Nations
  • Broaden and Deepen the Range of Voices Recently Added to the Curriculum
  • Capture Immigrants’ Birth Culture and the Cultural Interaction That Occurred After Their Arrival
  • Recognize That Events in the United States Occur Contemporaneously with Those Worldwide
  • Explore the Narratives of Other Nations
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter Fourteen: Global Education for Critical Geography: Jason R. Harshman
  • Connecting Critical Geography and Global Education
  • Deterritorializing Space and Culture
  • Developing a Globally Minded Critical Geography Education
  • Where Is Turkey?
  • Who Lives in China?
  • Advancing Critical Geography in Global Education
  • References
  • Notes
  • Chapter Fifteen: Blogging for Global Literacy and Cross-cultural Awareness: Kenneth T. Carano & Daniel W. Stuckart
  • Review of the Literature
  • Global Awareness
  • Global Awareness and Technology
  • Objectives and Purpose of the Study
  • Methods
  • Discussion
  • Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix A
  • Questionnaire 1: Swaziland
  • Questionnaire 1: Malaysia
  • Appendix B
  • Questionnaire 2
  • Appendix C
  • Questionnaire 3: Swaziland
  • Questionnaire 3: Malaysia
  • Appendix D
  • Chapter Sixteen: Using Storytelling and Drama to Teach Understanding and Respect for Global Values and Beliefs: Thomas N. Turner, Dorothy Blanks, Sarah Philpott, & Lance McConkey
  • Storytelling
  • Considering Readability
  • Drama to Promote Global Education
  • Technology as a Tool for Storytelling and Drama in Global Education
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter Seventeen: World Tour by Bus: Teaching and Learning about Globalization by Exploring Local Places in Search of Global Connections: Aaron T. Bodle
  • “Placing” Factory Town
  • The Teachers
  • The Assignment and the Bus Trip
  • The Sit-Down Strike Memorial
  • “Buick City”
  • Global Connections
  • Conclusions and Suggestions for Practice
  • References
  • Chapter Eighteen: Teaching Social Studies from a Human Rights Perspective: Professional Development in a Context of Globalization: Rachayita Shah, Rosanna Gatens, Dilys Schoorman, & Julie Wachtel
  • Pedagogical Value of Holocaust Education
  • Professional Development as Conscientization
  • Holocaust Education Summer Institute
  • Rethinking Social Studies Curriculum: Moving from Memory to Action
  • The HESI as a Pedagogical Model for Social Studies Teachers
  • Professional Development in the Context of Globalization: Promises and Challenges
  • References
  • Chapter Nineteen: Preparing Teachers for Global Consciousness in the Age of Globalization: Lydiah Nganga
  • Theoretical Perspectives
  • Social Studies and Multiple Perspectives
  • Instructional Strategies
  • Studying a Foreign Nation
  • Exploring Multiple Perspectives
  • Conclusions and Implications for Social Studies Educators
  • References
  • Chapter Twenty: Creative Pedagogies in Integrating Global Awareness in Secondary Social Studies Curricula in Teacher Education Programs and Schools: Toni Fuss Kirkwood-Tucker
  • Introduction
  • Integrating a Global Awareness into Curricula and Instruction
  • Postholing Global Issues
  • Infusing Comparative Approaches in History, Economics, and Government Courses
  • Integrating Contemporary Issues into Traditional Content
  • Teaching Current Events from a Global Perspective
  • Simulating the United Nations
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Notes
  • Chapter Twenty-one: Social Studies Education in a Globalized Era: Afterword: Lydiah Nganga, John Kambutu
  • Lydiah Nganga & John Kambutu
  • References
  • Contributors


I express appreciation to all the educators who answered the call for manuscripts. Due to their generous contribution of quality chapters, this book is now a reality. Because these educators have shared their experiences and wisdom generously, Exploring Globalization Opportunities and Challenges in Social Studies: Effective Instructional Approaches is now available as a resource for global and social studies educators. Although this work is perhaps most beneficial to such educators, others will most certainly benefit because these chapter contributors have employed a variety of philosophical, theoretical and experiential lenses relative to globalization and global education.

Many thanks to the following chapter reviewers for providing meaningful feedback: Rebecca C. Aguayo, Linda Bennett, Aaron Bodle, Kenneth T. Carano, Antonio J. Castro, Catherine Cooke-Canitz, Paul G. Fitchett, Erik Garrett, Rosanna M. Gatens, Jason R. Harshman, Mirynne Igualada, Joshua Kenna, Toni Fuss Kirkwood-Tucker, Joe O’Brien, Cynthia Poole, Dilys Schoorman, Rachayita Shah, Daniel W. Stuckart, Karen Thomas-Brown, Thomas N. Turner, Ozum Ucok-Sayrak, Stewart Waters and Cameron White. I am deeply indebted to these reviewers and chapter contributors because their efforts were on a voluntary basis.

I am equally indebted to my co-editors, John Kambutu and William B. Russell III. This book project would not have been possible without their support and expertise.

Finally, many thanks to Michael A. Peters, Chris Myers, Stephen Mazur, Phyllis Korper, Sarah Stack, and Jackie Pavlovic of Peter Lang Publishing for facilitating the publication of this book.


Lydiah Nganga
University of Wyoming, Casper College Center

← ix | x → ← x | xi →


What is global education? What is the role of education in a global world? How do we prepare students to become effective citizens in a global community? How do we effectively teach global education? These questions have spawned many debates and scholarly discussions and are not easily answered. No matter if you align with the core constructs of global interconnectedness or perspective consciousness, global education curriculum and pedagogy form an important educational concept that has and will continue to arouse interest and ignite discussion.

Exploring Globalization Opportunities and Challenges in Social Studies: Effective Instructional Approaches examines global education and how it should be taught in the social studies. This volume includes twenty-one chapters and is divided into two sections. Part 1, Global Issues, Trends, Policies, Practices, and Implications, includes chapters that examine relevant global issues. This section begins with a chapter by John Kambutu that examines globalization, its history, impact, and role in education. The following chapter by Catherine Cooke-Canitz analyzes the challenges of teacher acculturation and presents four main orientations to help in understanding the various responses that teachers have toward their immigrant students. Chapter 3, by Paul G. Fitchett, explores the dynamics of neoliberalism, its impact on immigrant identity, and the manner in which social studies textbooks and curricula have propagated neoliberal principles. Fitchett’s chapter is followed by Lydiah Nganga and Keonghee Tao Han’s examination of immigration issues related to economic globalization and how these issues call for K–12 teachers and university instructors to become well informed and proactive global multicultural educators. Chapter 5, by Karen Thomas-Brown, analyzes perspectives from a Caribbean island on preparing teachers for global citizenship. The following chapter by Ozum Ucok-Sayrak and Erik Garrett offers service-learning as a pedagogical practice for preparing students to be global citizens. Chapter 7, by Cameron White, discusses global classrooms and how to contextualize global education in a contemporary classroom. White’s chapter is followed by Linda B. Bennett’s examination of various higher education institutions’ undergraduate academic international/global experiences. This section concludes with a chapter by Antonio J. Castro and Rebecca C. Aguayo, which discusses the complexities of genocide education and global citizenship.

Part 2, Global Issues and Innovative Instructional Practices for Teaching Global Education, includes chapters that explore innovative instructional practices to teach effectively to specific global issues. This section begins with a chapter by Stewart Waters and William B. Russell III that examines how films ← xi | xii → can be used to facilitate relevant and powerful discussions in the classroom to encourage the development of global citizens of character. Waters and Russell’s chapter is followed by Mirynne Igualada and Dilys Schoorman’s discussion of the challenges facing the teaching of global education in a time of standardization. The following chapter, by Emma K. Humphries and Elizabeth Yeager Washington, examines a conceptual framework through which educators can help students to understand the terms “citizenship” and “civic engagement.” Chapter 13, by Joseph O’Brien and Jason L. Endacott, explores how the U.S. history curriculum can be globalized with historical empathy. Chapter 14, by Jason R. Harshman, emphasizes global education and the importance of including multiple perspectives when teaching cultural, human, and physical geography. In chapter 15, Kenneth T. Carano and Daniel W. Stuckart explore using Weblogs, or blogs, as a pedagogical tool in the development of global literacy and cross-cultural awareness. This chapter is followed by Thomas N. Turner, Dorothy Blanks, Sarah Philpot, and Lance McConkey’s exploration of using storytelling and drama to teach understanding and respect for global values and beliefs. Chapter 17, by Aaron T. Bodle, discusses teaching and learning about globalization by exploring local places in search of global connections. Bodle’s chapter is followed by Rachayita Shah, Rose Gatens, Dilys Schoorman, and Julie Wachtel’s analysis of professional development training of human rights violations and its context to globalization. Chapter 19, by Lydiah Nganga, explores a variety of instructional strategies for social studies method courses to help students gain a better understanding of the world. Nganga’s chapter is followed by Toni Fuss Kirkwood-Tucker’s discussion of creative pedagogies for teacher candidates in teacher education programs and practicing teachers in schools, helping them to effectively teach about the world and its people despite extant state and district curricular guidelines. This section concludes with a chapter by Lydiah Nganga and John Kambutu, summarizing the role of social studies and global education in a globalized era.

The twenty-one chapters included in this volume represent the vast of amount of relevant topics related to global education in social studies. This volume serves as both a foundation and a springboard for dialog, scholarship, curriculum, and pedagogy as global education and social studies education move forward into the twenty-first century.


William B. Russell III
University of Central Florida

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Global Issues, Trends, Policies,
Practices, and Implications

← xii | 1 →

← 1 | 2 →


Globalization: History, Consequences
and What to Do with It

John Kambutu

Globalization is an old phenomenon. However, the impact of contemporary globalization efforts is generally misunderstood due to positionality. While people in positions of benefit tend to have favorable perceptions, the disadvantaged are likely to question the value of globalization. Thus, to fully understand globalization, this chapter recommends a holistic analysis from a critical theoretical framework. In addition, a call is made for an education for social justice.

Globalization has had an impact on everyone in some way. Nevertheless, its history and consequences are somehow murky. Because globalization has different effects, people use various lenses and metaphors to understand it. For example, groups that benefit the most might use favorable metaphors such as the “global village, the Network of interdependence, the McWorld and the Spaceship earth.” But the disadvantaged might make meaning through critical schemas such as “military competition, and Neo-colonialism” (Sleeter, 2003, pp. 3–4). So, while positionality shapes understanding, it also socializes individuals into a particular kind of thinking, feeling and acting (Kambutu, Rios & Castañeda, 2009). Therefore, to understand the effects of globalization, a holistic and objective analysis is essential.

The origin of globalization is a contested issue. While some scholars see it as a new phenomenon, others think globalization is as old as humanity (Wiarda, 2007). In support of the evolutionary nature of globalization, Held, McGrew, Goldblatt and Perraton (1999) provided the following four phases of development: a) pre-modern, 900 to 1000; b) early modern, 1500 to 1850; c) modern, 1850 to 1945; and d) contemporary, 1945 to the present. Advances in technology and increases in information accessibility are hallmarks of contemporary globalization.

Modern technologies and the ability to access information with relative ease have transformed the world in ways never seen before. Most notable, however, is the rise of the Net-Generation, a group that has grown up entirely in the digital age. The Net-Generation is unique in that all they know is a technologically interconnected world (Tapscott, 2009). To them, the world is “virtual,” a place of interdependence and interconnections, vis-à-vis a physical ← 3 | 4 → place governed by rigid cultural, economic and political boundaries. Krieger ( 2005) offered a similar assessment but also associated globalization with improved standards. Due to interconnection, a “global village” that supports international trade and economic stability has emerged (Armijo, 1996). In addition, technologies have increased interactions between cultural groups, leading to global cultural understanding and appreciation (Kambutu & Nganga, 2008). Notwithstanding the benefits, critical theorists see a link between globalization and increasing global social injustices.

Critical theory supports objective and thorough investigation of situations. For instance, Marcuse (1973) cautioned against focusing on facts only; one must also provide objective and detailed evaluations. Thus, examining globalization using a critical theoretical framework invites a holistic investigation of the policies and practices involved (el-Ojeili & Hayden, 2006). Obviously, globalization is linked to the “global village” mindset. Supporters of a global village metaphor assign to globalization positive effects because it has enabled people of different cultural, economic and political persuasions to interact, understand and appreciate one another (Ette, 2012). Nevertheless, critical theorists hold globalization responsible for increases in global injustices (Sleeter, 2003). Indeed, designed carefully by the ruling Western elites, contemporary globalization is a framework that advances neoliberal political, social and economic agendas (Miller, 2010; Steger, 2009).


As an invention of neoliberal Western elites, globalization focuses more on the economic, social and political interests of wealthy nations. To that end, Lee (2012) discussed globalization in the context of Anglo-merchant political, social and economic hegemonies at the expense of human and civil rights. Several strategies, including the internationalization of U.S.-based politics, economics, academic practices and goods such as movies, music and literature, create an ideal globalization climate. In addition, the popularization of global consumerism or the “McWorld” phenomenon and the subordination of poor nations’ cultural, economic and political institutions through military domination support globalization efforts by spreading Western supremacy and dominance (Barber & Schulz, 1996). Notwithstanding the general impact, globalization is felt differently based on positionality.

Based on positionality, globalization affects people differently. For example, while groups in positions of advantage receive its positive effects, the disadvantaged have negative experiences. Thus, the two groups are likely to understand globalization differently. Therefore, any objective study should ← 4 | 5 → consider positionality. While wealthy countries that benefit the most understand globalization through the metaphors of the “global village and the Network of interdependence,” the exploited groups use the “military competition, and Neo-colonialism” lenses to critique globalization efforts (Sleeter, 2003, pp. 3–4). Notwithstanding the use of different schemas, the issue of global interconnectedness is commonly held. Increasingly, however, the exploited groups hold globalization responsible for the emerging modern forms of colonialism and global injustices, particularly in education.

Effects on Education

Because of globalization, a uniform “global” curriculum has emerged. Thus, Grant and Grant (2007) were concerned about the rise of monolithic global epistemologies that mimic Western cultures. Under globalization, Western canons, American ideologies and learning structures specifically are popularized by neoliberal policies as the “norm,” inherently superior, and, therefore, worthy of pursuing globally. While global curricula might have value, Preskill (2001) was apprehensive because of the potential danger of creating a false sense of global epistemological equality, while restricting “other” ways of knowing. In other words, imposing foreign educational practices on “others” could not only stifle cultural and ethnic groups’ abilities to develop relevant epistemologies but also promote mental “enslavement” and global zombification.

Education for mental enslavement is dangerous. According to Woodson (1990), such an education ensures that the enslaved mind is always thinking and acting according to the enslaver’s interests. So, if globalization is a framework that serves the interest of the ruling elites, a global curriculum designed by the same group should be expected to socialize world cultures into accepting their globalization policies. Consequently, Lee (2012) cautioned against neoliberal policies that support Eurocentric canons because they promote conformity instead of informed and critical discourse. Meanwhile, the privileging of the English language over various local languages is an additional disempowering policy to non-native English speakers, particularly in scholarship.

Increasingly, globalization requires scholars to write for Thomson Reuters–based academic journals, a daunting challenge for non-native English speakers. While these scholars engage in laborious educational tasks to serve an external clientele, they fail to address valuable local epistemologies. But because globalization promotes the interests of wealthy nations, it is most probable that local educational systems will be suppressed. Thus, Cabrera, Montero-Sieburth and Trujillo (2012) spoke strongly against educational sys ← 5 | 6 → tems that pretend to protect human rights while actually promoting the interests of hegemonic groups. Rather, an education that examines globalization fully in the context of social justice is necessary. But the implementation of an education for global justice might not be an easy process because globalization affects people differently. Recall that beneficiaries, that is, wealthy nations, perceive globalization favorably. Naturally, then, these nations are likely to implement curricula that do not challenge the socio-cultural, political and economic injustices supported by globalization policies (Giroux, 2006). An educational system that fails to address social justice issues could cause mental enslavement and global zombification.

An education for enslavement and zombification limits people’s thinking abilities. Instead of analyzing situations critically, enslaved minds are likely to mimic the ethos of the groups in power and privilege. So, although globalization serves the interests of wealthy nations, neoliberalism has effectively popularized the notion that it is beneficial to the whole world. To prove this view, I surveyed six randomly selected people in the United States. On a piece of paper, the participants described globalization. All six participants believed in the positive nature of globalization. For example, while one respondent defined it as “marketing of products worldwide,” another viewed globalization as “expanding resources to the entire world.” Other participants added that globalization was simply “working together with all nations to share opportunities with Third World countries in order to create a better world.”


XII, 267
ISBN (Softcover)
ISBN (Hardcover)
Publication date
2013 (September)
policies reforms education
New York, Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, Frankfurt am Main, Oxford, Wien, 2013. 267 pp.

Biographical notes

Lydiah Nganga (Volume editor) John Kambutu (Volume editor) William B. Russell III (Volume editor)

Lydiah Nganga (PhD in curriculum and instruction from the University of Wyoming) is Associate Professor of Elementary and Early Childhood Education at the University of Wyoming/Casper College Center. She teaches humanities/social studies methods and other education courses. Dr. Nganga has published two books and has authored/co-authored numerous articles and book chapters. John Kambutu (PhD in education from the University of Wyoming) is Associate Professor of Educational Studies at the University of Wyoming/Casper College Center. He has published many scholarly articles and book chapters. Dr. Kambutu guest-edited a special issue entitled «Multicultural Education in an Internationalized/globalized Age» in Multicultural Perspectives: The Official Journal of the National Association for Multicultural Education. William B. Russell III (PhD in social science education from The Florida State University) is Associate Professor of Social Science Education at The University of Central Florida. He is the editor of the preeminent journal in the field of social studies education, The Journal of Social Studies Research. Dr. Russell has also authored numerous peer-reviewed journal articles related to social studies education.


Title: Exploring Globalization Opportunities and Challenges in Social Studies
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