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Framing Peace

Thinking about and Enacting Curriculum as «Radical Hope»

by Hans Smits (Volume editor) Rahat Naqvi (Volume editor)
Monographs XVI, 269 Pages
Series: Complicated Conversation, Volume 44
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Table Of Content

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author(s)/editor(s)
  • About the book
  • Praise for framing PEACE
  • Advance praise
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Table of Contents
  • Preface
  • STRUCTURE AND PURPOSE OF THE BOOK
  • Acknowledgements
  • REFERENCES
  • Introduction: Framing Peace and Radical Hope: Confronting Precariousness
  • RADICAL HOPE AND CURRICULUM
  • “FRAMES” AND UNDERSTANDING RELATIONALITY
  • PRECARIOUSNESS, RECOGNITION, AND RESPONSIBILITY
  • PRECARIOUSNESS AND PEACE
  • Chapter 1: Framing Peace-by-Piece: How to Teach Peace to a Subject that Is Continually in Crisis
  • Case Study: Coming up against the World in Social Studies Education: Framing Peace
  • Chapter 2: Frames of Ubuntu: (Re)Framing an Ethical Education
  • Case Study: How Do We Educate So “That the People of This Precious Earth … May Live”? Rethinking the History Curriculum in Zimbabwe
  • Chapter 3: Framing Peace as Tensioned Engagement
  • Case Study: Framing Muslims/Framing Americans: Teaching about Islamophobia and Anti-Americanism in Peace Education
  • Chapter 4: Curricular Spaces of Renewal: Toward Reconciliation
  • Case Study: Framing Peace in a Multilingual Context
  • Chapter 5: Between Being “Acted upon and Acting”: An Educator’s Experience in Framing Peace through Restorative Justice
  • Case Study: Exploring Humanitarian Law: Perspectives from Educators and Youth in Atlantic Canada
  • Chapter 6: Framing Radical Hope with Forbidden Cities: Curriculum, Social Networks, and a Literacy of Dreams
  • Case Study: Aesthetic Responses to Cultural Displacement: Using Autobiography, Poetry, and Digital Storytelling with Refugee Boys
  • Chapter 7: For the Sake of Diplomacy: The Educational (Im)Possibility of Peace Teaching in Elementary School
  • Case Studies: The Glorification of War: How Elementary Curriculum Frames Students’ Perceptions and Queries as a Frame for Peace Education in the Elementary Classroom
  • Chapter 8: Sexuality and Life Grievable
  • Case Study: Asking Questions and Building Hope: A Proposal for Youth Civic Engagement Projects
  • Chapter 9: Does Teaching about the “Other” in Teachers’ Training Really Matter? Jewish and Palestinian Students in Intercultural Educational Activity
  • Case Study: Engaging Youth in Framing the War: Canadian University Students
  • Chapter 10: Resilience and Hope in the Garden: Intercropping Aboriginal and Western Ways of Knowing to Inquire into Science Teacher Education
  • Case Study: Indigenous Epistemologies as Embodied Learning and Knowing
  • AN INVITATION TO CONVERSATION AND KEEPING QUESTIONS IN PLAY
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 1: Framing Peace-by-Piece: How to Teach Peace to a Subject that Is Continually in Crisis
  • CALL AND RESPONSE
  • MODES OF QUESTIONING
  • PEACE-BY-PIECE
  • ENDNOTES
  • REFERENCES
  • Case Study: Coming up against the World in Social Studies Education: Framing Peace
  • ENDNOTE
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 2: Frames of Ubuntu: (Re)Framing an Ethical Education
  • INTRODUCTION: A HISTORY OF VIOLENCE
  • ARENDT AND BUTLER: ON VIOLENCE
  • FRAMES OF UBUNTU
  • Ubuntu
  • In the Spirit of Joseph
  • FRAMES OF PEACE
  • ENDNOTES
  • REFERENCES
  • Case Study: How Do We Educate So “That the People of This Precious Earth … May Live”? Rethinking the History Curriculum in Zimbabwe
  • INTRODUCTION
  • THE “DIFFERENTIAL GRIEVABILITY” OF LIVES IN ZIMBABWE
  • HISTORY SYLLABI AS FRAMES OF “DIFFERENTIAL GRIEVABILITY”
  • PEDAGOGICAL PRACTICES THAT ENGENDER HOPE
  • CONCLUSION
  • ENDNOTES
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 3: Framing Peace as Tensioned Engagement
  • Engaging Difference through Auto/ethno/graphic Bricolage (DAEGB)
  • The Self as a Relation
  • Do You Support Suicide Bombing?
  • Trepidation in Damascus
  • Fearing There, Fearing Here?
  • Entangled in the Persistent Narrative of the Canadian Peacekeeper
  • The Mass Media as Curriculum on Difference
  • Framing Peace as Tensioned Engagement
  • REFERENCES
  • Case Study: Framing Muslims/Framing Americans: Teaching about Islamophobia and Anti-Americanism in Peace Education
  • ISLAMOPHOBIA VERSUS ANTI-AMERICANISM: SHARED FRAMING PRACTICES
  • TEACHING MOHSIN HAMID’S THE RELUCTANT FUNDAMENTALIST
  • ENDNOTES
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 4: Curricular Spaces of Renewal: Toward Reconciliation
  • CURRICULUM AS COLONIAL SPACE
  • SPACES OF HEALING
  • REFRAMING CURRICULAR SPACES
  • HOPE FOR RECONCILIATION
  • REFERENCES
  • Case Study: Framing Peace in a Multilingual Context
  • INTRODUCTION
  • PEDAGOGICAL CONTEXT
  • Curriculum: Language Buddies: Expanding a Sense of Responsibility
  • Linguistic Privilege: Narrating Our Power Beyond the First Person
  • Multilingual Community Building: The Dislocation of Dominant Linguistic Privileges
  • CONCLUSION: EXPANDING GRIEVABILITY
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 5: Between Being “Acted upon and Acting”: An Educator’s Experience in Framing Peace through Restorative Justice
  • THE ROOTS OF RESTORATIVE JUSTICE
  • RESTORATIVE JUSTICE IN A CONTEMPORARY WESTERN CONTEXT
  • RESTORATIVE JUSTICE IN THE CONTEXT OF BUTLER AND LEAR
  • OUR COMMON VULNERABILITY ACKNOWLEDGED’THE MEANING OF THE QUESTIONS
  • TRANSFORMING OUR MELANCHOLIA TO INCLUDE “ CULTIVATING ONESELF IN A DIFFERENT DIRECTION”’THE IMPACT OF THE QUESTIONS
  • THE CURRICULUM AS LIVED EXPERIENCE’THE QUESTIONS GUIDE MY “WAY OF BEING”
  • A SUSTAINABLE FRAME OF PEACE
  • ENDNOTES
  • REFERENCES
  • Case Study: Exploring Humanitarian Law: Perspectives from Educators and Youth in Atlantic Canada
  • PEACE AND ITS POSSIBILITIES
  • HUMANITARIAN LAW EDUCATION AND BUILDING PEACE
  • EXPLORING HUMANITARIAN LAW WITH CANADIAN YOUTH: STRATEGIES AND EXPERIENCES
  • CONCLUSION
  • ENDNOTES
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 6: Framing Radical Hope with Forbidden Cities: Curriculum, Social Networks, and a Literacy of Dreams
  • LEARNING TO APPREHEND MARGINALIZED YOUTH WITHIN THE SOCIAL NETWORKS OF PUBLIC SCHOOLING
  • Hacking Social Networks Beyond Literacies of Recognition
  • Social Networking: A Literacy of Dreams: Dorothy
  • REIMAGINING THE LIVEABLE LIVES OF MARGINALIZED YOUTH
  • ENDNOTES
  • REFERENCES
  • Case Study: Aesthetic Responses to Cultural Displacement: Using Autobiography, Poetry, and Digital Storytelling with Refugee Boys
  • Profile of Clarkston, Georgia
  • Profile of Students in the Program
  • Description of the Summer Academic Enrichment Initiative
  • Description of the Curriculum for the Initiative
  • ENDNOTES
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 7: For the Sake of Diplomacy: The Educational (Im)Possibility of Peace Teaching in Elementary School
  • BEGINNINGS
  • FRAMES
  • THE CONTEMPLATIVE
  • THE NEGOTIABLE
  • THE OBEDIENT
  • REFRAMINGS
  • REFERENCES
  • Case Study: The Glorification of War: How Elementary Curriculum Frames Students’ Perceptions
  • REFERENCES
  • Case Study: Queries as a Frame for Peace Education in the Elementary Classroom
  • HOW DO WE LEARN?
  • WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO WIN?
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 8: Sexuality and Life Grievable
  • THE ROLE OF FRAMES
  • FRAMES OF RELIGION
  • THE CATHOLIC FRAME AND HOMOSEXUALITY
  • GAY STRAIGHT ALLIANCES IN CATHOLIC SCHOOLS
  • GRIEVABILITY AND THE LIFE OF THE OTHER
  • FRAMES OF PEACE’A CHALLENGE FOR TEACHERS
  • CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES
  • Case Study: Asking Questions and Building Hope: A Proposal for Youth Civic Engagement Projects
  • LEARNING FROM SEVENTH GRADERS
  • BUILDING HOPE
  • What Makes Us Strong?
  • How Might Things be Different?
  • How Can We Move Forward?
  • CONCLUSION
  • ENDNOTE
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 9: Does Teaching about the “Other” in Teachers’ Training Really Matter? Jewish and Palestinian Students in Intercultural Educational Activity
  • INTRODUCTION
  • GETTING TO KNOW THE “OTHER” AND TEACHERS’ TRAINING IN TIME OF WAR
  • PROGRAMS FOR GETTING TO KNOW THE “OTHER” AND TEACHERS’ TRAINING IN ISRAEL
  • SETTING AND BACKGROUND: A MULTICULTURAL/NATIONAL PROGRAM AND ITS POLITICAL CONTEXT
  • RESEARCH
  • FRAMES, “OTHERNESS,” AND POWER
  • RECOGNIZING THE “OTHER” IN PRIVATE
  • DISCUSSION
  • ENDNOTES
  • REFERENCES
  • Case Study: Engaging Youth in Framing the War: Canadian University Students
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 10: Resilience and Hope in the Garden: Intercropping Aboriginal and Western Ways of Knowing to Inquire into Science Teacher Education
  • RE/FRAMING TEACHING AND LEARNING IN (PARTS OF) CANADA
  • CHANGE IN PRACTICE AS RADICAL HOPE: BEGINNING TO DO SOMETHING
  • Classroom Vignette 1: A Metaphor Gets Planted
  • Haudenosaunee Intercropping: A Metaphor for Reframing Understandings of Engaging with Indigenous Perspectives in Science Teacher Education
  • Classroom Vignette 2: A Metaphor Grows
  • Intercropping Understandings, Science Teacher Education, and Gardening
  • Unfolding Understandings
  • Classroom Vignette 3: Reseeding and Finding Radical Hope in the Garden
  • ENDNOTES
  • REFERENCES
  • Case Study: Indigenous Epistemologies as Embodied Learning and Knowing
  • INTRODUCTION
  • FRAMING OUR WORK
  • REFERENCES
  • Contributors
  • EDITORS AND INTRODUCTION: HANS SMITS AND RAHAT NAQVI
  • CHAPTER 1: ASHLEY PULLMAN AND CHRIS NICHOLS
  • CASE STUDY: MARK HELMSING
  • CHAPTER 2: DALENE SWANSON
  • CASE STUDY: NATHAN MOYO AND MAROPENG MODIBA
  • CHAPTER 3: DIANE P. WATT
  • CASE STUDY: FAROUK MITHA
  • CHAPTER 4: JENNIFER A. TUPPER
  • CASE STUDY: KIMBERLY MEREDITH
  • CHAPTER 5: DOROTHY D. VAANDERING
  • CASE STUDY: CATHERINE BAILLIE ABIDI
  • CHAPTER 6: LINDA RADFORD AND NICHOLAS NG-A-FOOK
  • CASE STUDY: TOBY EMERT
  • CHAPTER 7: DEBBIE SONU
  • CASE STUDY: MARILYN CULLEN-REAVILL
  • CASE STUDY: CHRIS LOEFFLER
  • CHAPTER 8: JENNIFER A. BARNETT
  • CASE STUDY: SHIRA EVE EPSTEIN
  • CHAPTER 9: DALYA YAFA MARKOVICH
  • CASE STUDY: FARHAT SHAHZAD
  • CHAPTER 10: DAWN WISEMAN, TRACY ONUCZKO, AND FLORENCE GLANFIELD
  • CASE STUDY: MARIA DEL CARMEN RODRIGUEZ DE FRANCE
  • COVER PHOTOGRAPH: QAMAR BANA

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Preface

A central concern of our work as teacher educators has been the preparation of teachers in terms of understanding diversity and possibilities for creating peaceful experiences in the lives of all children and students. Particularly salient to the idea of peace, as exemplified by the contributions in this book, is that of relationships and responsibility and how those can be enacted as curriculum aims in school and university classrooms.

As we were preparing the book for press, multiple events were occurring globally, challenging the very hope for peace and reminding us of life’s precariousness. Russia invaded the Crimea in the Ukraine; violence and loss of life continues in Syria, with multitudes of refugees finding themselves without the security of home and livelihood. An airliner simply disappears somewhere in the skies near Malaysia. Youth unemployment is endemic in many parts of Europe and other parts of the world. Global warming, unchecked resource exploitation, and environmental degradation are rife in our own country and other parts of the world. Civil unrest and conflict continue to fester in the Middle East, Iraq, and Afghanistan. Fizza Malik, a 24-year-old law graduate from the London School of Law, was amongst those killed in a suicide bombing in the district courts in Islamabad, Pakistan. This was her second day at work. Her tragic end represents thousands of untold stories that reflect the turmoil and violence faced by our young people across the world. Reporting on the sudden and tragic death of this young woman (John, 2014) reminds us of the following: “The war is in our homes, in our hearts. We sleep and awaken in its fold every day, knowing that ← xi | xii → today, someone we know has been irreversibly damaged because of it. But the question is, what do we all, those who are silently watching the unraveling of this war, do about it?”

Other events and stories also remind us of precariousness. 12 Years a Slave won the Academy Award for best film, justly recognizing the devastating cost of slavery to human lives and dignity; but the director Steve McQueen reminded us that there are still at least 20 million slaves in the world, not including multiple millions more who work for inadequate incomes and lack of security in dangerous conditions. In our own parts of the world, we live in cities that derive wealth from natural resources like oil and gas. But even so, life for many people is precarious: homelessness and violence are realities in the midst of wealth; “rape-culture” and safety for women is a concern in our universities; public goods and institutions are denied adequate resources and services are increasingly privatized. There are enormous costs to the earth’s ecology and environment through unsustainable development.

Other events and stories we encounter in everyday life also challenge us to think in terms of peace and what that means in terms of how we conduct our lives. “What to do about it” in curriculum terms, that is, how we take responsibility for educating our young is a question provoked not only by calamitous events; precariousness and vulnerability are qualities of life in all communities. What we are suggesting in the diverse stories offered in this book is not, following Judith Butler (2004), that precariousness is something that happens at a distance, but a condition of what we can understand or hear (p. 5) in apprehending the other in terms of what Butler calls grievability: “that grief contains the possibility of apprehending a mode of dispossession that is fundamental to who I am” (p. 28). The notion of hope adopted by the authors represented in this book starts with the “apprehension of common human vulnerability” (p. 30). Such apprehension requires a view of the person who is less bounded and more open to others in recognition that all lives are grievable.

Of course, devastating events especially strain our ability to make sense of the world. However, it is this very difficulty, that is, how we develop language, that begins to more generously take up a sense of self in relation to others we recognize as a central challenge for curriculum; indeed, to cite Butler (2004), recognition of the other is a condition for language that more inclusively apprehends common vulnerability: that “language cannot survive outside of the conditions of address” (p. 139). When using the term language, we also are aware that this is not just a limited notion of language in a cognitive or denotative sense but one that involves emotional and aesthetic responses, what the political philosopher William Connolly (2013) terms, “the receptive side of our engagements” (p. 206).

What we hope to illustrate in this book is the pedagogical responsibility to create plausible narratives allowing young people opportunities to make sense of themselves ← xii | xiii → and their relationships to others. Jonathan Lear (2006), one of the authors to which we have appealed in offering the themes for this collection, puts it evocatively:

Part of the sustenance our parenting figures will give us is the concepts which we can at least begin to understand what we are longing for. This is a crucial aspect of acquiring a natural language: inheriting a culture’s set of concepts through which we can understand ourselves as desiring, wishing, and hoping for certain things. (pp. 122–123)

How do and should we assume responsibilities as educators in the lived realities of precariousness, and in Lear’s term, help our young people understand what they might long for? And what does it mean to say that curriculum is about hope? Hope seems like a weak response to precariousness, although we could not be teachers if we did not think in terms of hope for our children and students. What hope means in a stronger sense and how to “reframe” our understanding of peace as a form of hope, is therefore the question that is woven throughout the inquiries and narratives included in this book.

Peace as radical hope, as we further elaborate in the introduction and chapters that follow, is fundamentally about how we take up responsibility in the world in the face of precariousness that denies all humans opportunities for better lives. It would be mistaken, however, to characterize hope and peace simply as aims or objectives written into curriculum, whether in elementary school, high school, or teacher education classes. Rather, we follow Lear’s (2006) notion of radical hope as requiring certain ways of being and acting in the world: the exercise of practical reason, of courage, of imagination, and of acting well toward others. Lear emphasizes that the experience of radical hope requires a change in “psychological structure.” As emphasized in this book, such a change in thinking about the self involves a recognition—and practice—of relationality: that to understand and confront precariousness requires a sense of oneself as a person who is indelibly linked with others through bonds of caring and responsibility. In Connolly’s (2013) terms, we require a sense of the person that “plays down the hubristic ideas that we simply ‘constitute’ the world we interpret” (p. 206) and one who is more open to exploration of common bonds with others through multiple forms of representation.

Therefore, peace, as we are using the term in this book, is not suggested as an abstract ideal or finite goal of curriculum but rather as an invitation to apprehend others in full recognition of shared humanity and shared vulnerability. Judith Butler (2009) suggests that nonviolence as an idea is not meaningful without recognition of how violence exists in our selves and in certain practices and institutional arrangements. As she writes, which is a fitting description of what we were aiming for in the book, the practice of peace or nonviolence is not just a principle “but a practice, fully fallible, of trying to attend to the precariousness of life, checking transmutation of life into non-life” (p. 177). It is this idea of peace as practice with which we hope our readers will engage. ← xiii | xiv →

STRUCTURE AND PURPOSE OF THE BOOK

As we elaborate further in the introduction that follows, this book is a culmination of several years of working with the ideas discussed here. In planning the focus and content of the book, we wanted to avoid overly abstract discussions of framing and radical hope, the two central concepts around which the book was conceived. Rather our intention was to create a collection of essays that manifest an orientation to curriculum and pedagogic practice and engage thoughtfully with the themes of framing and radical hope.

We were pleased with the diversity of responses to our invitation for submissions in terms of both topics and contexts. As you can read in the contributor’s biographies, the book is international in scope. Educators from different locations in the world represent diverse educational contexts and interests. However, all the contributors share pedagogic concerns for nurturing peaceful experiences for students and for a curriculum of “radical hope.”

Butler’s and Lear’s ideas are deeply philosophical in origin and scope, and the contributions to this book thoughtfully address their concepts of frames, radical hope, and peace. However, our general intention was to focus on curriculum and practice. The chapters represent opportunities to delve more deeply into the book’s themes, but nonetheless with an orientation to understanding in curriculum terms. We follow each chapter with a case study that offers an elaborated example of some of the ideas discussed in the preceding chapter. The chapters and case studies can be read either individually or together as reflections on theory and practice and possibilities for building a curriculum and pedagogy of peace.

Finally, we invite readers of the book and its contents to engage in further conversations about the topic and questions offered. With that in mind, at the end of each chapter we included questions as invitations to further and ongoing conversations. But of course, the more productive questions will come from readers who share our concerns about precariousness and possibilities for peace. It is to such ongoing inquiries that our book is dedicated.

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Acknowledgements

Each chapter and case study included in this book was subject to at least two blind reviews. Each of the authors in this book also reviewed, confidentially, other contributions to the book. We would like to offer our sincere appreciation to all our contributors, not only for their work included in this book, but also for participating and contributing to the review process.

As well, we would like to acknowledge and thank the following for offering their insightful and incisive reviews and suggestions for improvement, which helped each author as well as the editors in strengthening the text as a whole: Diane Conrad, Claudia Eppert, Alex Fidyk, Kent de Heyer, Michelle Hogue, Ingrid Johnston, Carol Leroy, Darren Lund, Robert Nellis, Lisa Panatotidis, Cynthia Prasow, Dianne Roulson, Jo Towers, and Jason Wallin. To Qamar Bana, our sincere thanks for contributing her photograph, which graces the cover of this book. We would also like to thank William F. Pinar, Canada Research Chair in the Faculty of Education at the University of British Columbia, for his support in publishing this project.

REFERENCES

Butler, J. (2004). Precarious life. The powers of mourning and violence. London and New York: Verso.

Butler, J. (2009). Frames of war. When is life grievable? London and New York: Verso. ← xv | xvi →

Connolly, W. (2013). The fragility of things. Self-organizing processes, neoliberal fantasies, and democratic activism. Durham, NC and London: Duke University Press.

John, Z. (2014). Fizza Malik: Beyond the death toll. Retrieved from: http://www.dawn.com/news/1090984/fizza-malik-beyond-the-death-toll

Lear, J. (2006). Radical hope. Ethics in the face of cultural devastation. Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press.

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Introduction

Framing Peace AND
Radical Hope: Confronting
Precariousness

HANS SMITS AND RAHAT NAQVI

Who is the subject to whom the address of non-violence is directed, and through what frames is that claim made sensible?

(BUTLER, 2009, P. 166)

Summary

The language of frames suggests the need to rethink self and other in fostering ethical relationships as a foundation for peaceful existence. Educational writers and practitioners from many parts of the world, including New York, Denver, Minneapolis, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Israel, and Canada offer their perspectives on peace as an aim of curriculum.
Possibilities for learning about peace conceived in terms of Jonathan Lear’s (2006) notion of «radical hope» are illustrated in the contexts of diverse settings and challenges: the aftermath of apartheid in South Africa, re-imagining post-colonial history curricula in Zimbabwe, exploring the meanings of truth and reconciliation and restorative justice in Canada, examining the quality of pedagogic relationships in elementary school classrooms, attending to experiences of gay and lesbian students in schools, experiences of marginalized students, children’s experiences of civic engagement, Islamophobia in high schools and teacher education classes, fraught relationships between Palestinian and Jewish students in a teachers’ college in Israel, and the inclusion of First Nations culture and knowledge in Canadian teacher education classes. As whole and in each of its parts, Framing Peace encourages us to think about peace as an urgent and fundamental responsibility of curriculum at all levels of education.

Details

Pages
XVI, 269
ISBN (PDF)
9781453913765
ISBN (ePUB)
9781454199021
ISBN (MOBI)
9781454199014
ISBN (Book)
9781433122422
Language
English
Publication date
2014 (January)
Published
New York, Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, Frankfurt am Main, Oxford, Wien, 2015. 269 pp.

Biographical notes

Hans Smits (Volume editor) Rahat Naqvi (Volume editor)

Hans Smits (PhD in curriculum studies from the University of Alberta) is retired as an associate dean from the University of Calgary. He was a recipient of the Ted T. Aoki award for contributions to curriculum in Canada. Recent books include (with Lund, Panayotidis, Smits, and Towers) Provoking Conversations on Inquiry in Teacher Education (Peter Lang, 2012) and (with Rahat Naqvi) Thinking About and Enacting Curriculum in «Frames of War» (2012). Rahat Naqvi (PhD in the didactics of languages and cultures from the Université de la Sorbonne, Paris) is Associate Professor in second language pedagogy at the Werklund School of Education, University of Calgary. Her most recent publications include a book, co-edited with Hans Smits, entitled Thinking About and Enacting Curriculum in «Frames of War» (2012).

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