LSP in Colombia

Advances and challenges

by Gabriel Quiroz Herrera (Volume editor) Pedro Patino Garcia (Volume editor)
Edited Collection 339 Pages
Series: Linguistic Insights, Volume 175

Table Of Content

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the Editors
  • About the Book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Contents
  • Foreword: Gabriel Quiroz / Pedro Patiño
  • 1. The origins
  • 2. Contents of the book
  • 2.1. Linguistic issues
  • 2.2. Phraseological issues
  • 2.3. Terminological issues
  • 2.4. Didactic issues
  • 2.5. Textual issues
  • 3. Concluding remarks
  • Linguistic Issues
  • Some Criteria for a Spanish Initialisms Recognition System: John Jairo Giraldo
  • 1. Initialism definition and typology
  • 1.1. Definition of initialisms
  • 1.2. Typology of initialisms
  • 1.2.1. Proper initialism
  • 1.2.2. Non-proper initialism
  • 2. Qualitative analysis of initialisms
  • 2.1. Corpus compilation
  • 2.2. Morphological analysis
  • 2.2.1. Prefix+initialism
  • 2.2.2. Initialism+initialism
  • 2.2.3. Gender and number
  • 2.3. Syntactic analysis
  • 3. Quantitative analysis of initialisms
  • 3.1. Descriptive statistics of Genomics initialisms
  • 3.2. Descriptive statistics of environment initialisms
  • 4. Criteria for a Spanish initialism recognition system
  • 4.1. Initialism formation rules
  • 4.1.1. Basic rules of initialism formation
  • 4.1.2. Complementary rules for initialism formation
  • 4.2. Initialism recognition patterns
  • 4.2.1. Initialism candidate recognition patterns
  • 4.2.2. Initialism-expansion pair recognition patterns
  • 5. Conclusions
  • 6. References
  • Syntactic Features in Specialized Texts: A Comparison of Two Syntactic Patterns in Texts of Different Levels of Specialization: Oscar Andrés Calvache / Mercedes Suárez
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Theoretical framework
  • 2.1. Syntactic features of specialized texts
  • 3. Methodology
  • 3.1. Criteria of corpus selection
  • 3.2. Identification and extraction of specialized noun phrases and passive voice
  • 4. Analysis and results
  • 4.1. Comparison of syntactic features vs. levels of specialization
  • 4.1.1. Specialized noun phrases
  • 4.1.2. Passive voice
  • 6. Conclusions
  • 7. Acknowledgements
  • 8. References
  • Applying Linguistic Methods for a Semiautomatic Analysis of Corporative Documents: Standard Operating Procedure: Bell Manrique, Diego Burgos, Carlos Zapata
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Conceptual framework
  • 2.1. Specialized discourse analysis
  • 2.2. Linguistic analysis and corpus linguistics
  • 2.3. Corporate technical documentation
  • 3. State-of-the-art review
  • 3.1. Analysis of linguistic features from documents
  • 3.2. Identification of the knowledge domain and business process
  • 4. Linguistic analysis
  • 4.1. Rhetorical analysis
  • 4.2. Morphosyntactic analysis
  • 4.3. Semantic analysis
  • 5. Evaluation
  • 5.1. Preliminary analysis of the verbs
  • 5.2. Preprocessing of SOP from the evaluation corpus
  • 5.3. Processing with dependency parser
  • 6. Conclusions and future work
  • 7. Acknowledgements
  • 8. References
  • Advances and Challenges of an Ontology Focused on Verbs Related to Political Violence: Ana María Tangarife, Germán Urrego, Jorge Antonio Mejía
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Verbs
  • 2.1. Verb management
  • 2.2. Ontologies of verbs
  • 3. An ontology based on verbs in the field of political violence
  • 3.1. Corpus or base of knowledge
  • 3.2. Classes and conceptual categories
  • 3.3. Types of words
  • 3.4. Selected verbs
  • 3.5. Classification of verbs
  • 4. Role of verbs in relation to other elements
  • 5. Model of a textual analysis system based on verbs
  • 5.1. Agents of system
  • 5.2. System Process
  • 5.3. Description of Protégé model
  • 5.4. System functional requirements
  • 6. Methodology
  • 7. Conclusions
  • 8. References
  • Identification of Knowledge Units Contained in Spanish Texts: Julio César Foronda, Germán Urrego, Gloria Giraldo
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Knowledge units
  • 3. Basic concepts about the Spanish language grammar
  • 3.1. Syntactic and semantic features
  • 3.2. The predicate of the sentence
  • 4. Formalism for representing atomic knowledge units
  • 5. Identification of knowledge units
  • 6. Results and conclusions
  • 7. References
  • Phraseological Issues
  • Challenges in the Translation of General and Specialized Phraseology: Germán Mira, John Jairo Giraldo
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Corpora
  • 3. The translation of phraseology
  • 4. Analysis and results
  • 4.1. GL analysis
  • 4.1.1. Full correspondence
  • 4.1.2. Full correspondence in content but not in constituents
  • 4.1.3. Full correspondence in content but partial correspondence in constituents
  • 4.1.4. Partial correspondence in semantic or pragmatic value
  • 4.1.5. Calque
  • 4.1.6. Paraphrase
  • 4.1.7. Omission
  • 4.1.8. Single lexeme (reduction)
  • 4.2. LSP analysis
  • 4.2.1. Equivalent SPU
  • 4.2.2. Paraphrase
  • 4.2.3. Semantic calquing
  • 4.2.4. Lexical calquing
  • 4.2.5. Loan
  • 4.2.6. Single lexeme
  • 4.2.7. Omission
  • 4.2.8. Overtranslation
  • 5. Conclusions
  • 6. References
  • Towards a Definition of Specialized Collocations: Pedro Patiño
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Criteria for collocability
  • 2.1. Criteria of collocability
  • 2.1.1. Frequency of co-occurrence
  • 2.1.2. Combinatory restrictions
  • 2.1.3. Degree of composionality
  • 2.1.4. Degree of transparency
  • 2.1.5. Adjacency versus span of words between node and collocate
  • 3. Specialized features
  • 4. Conclusion
  • 4.1. Future work
  • 5. Acknowledgements
  • 6. References
  • Terminological Issues
  • On Premodified Terms in Five Specialized Dictionaries: Gabriel Quiroz, Alejandro Arroyave
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Importance of dictionaries in LSP
  • 3. Criteria and selection of the terminological corpus
  • 4. Results
  • 4.1. Length and frequency of NP
  • 4.3. Frequency of patterns
  • 4.4. Frequency of patterns by length
  • 4.5. Morphological features of premodification
  • 5. Conclusions
  • 6. References
  • An Image-Term Co-occurrence Model for Multilingual Terminology Alignment and Cross-Language Image Indexing: Diego Burgos
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. The BC model
  • 2.1. Theoretical rationale
  • 2.2. Implementation of the BC model and concluding remarks
  • 2.2.1. Search space characterization
  • 2.2.2. Search space drawbacks
  • 2.2.3. Image-term alignment
  • MWT recognition
  • Noun classification
  • 2.4. Description of the prototype
  • 3. Related work
  • 4. References
  • International Terminology Standards in the Export Sector in Colombia: Juan Carlos Díaz
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. International terminological standardization
  • 3. Perspectives of terminology development in Colombia
  • 4. Analysis of the Colombian export sector
  • 5. Organizations of the Colombian export sector
  • 5.1. Proexport
  • 5.2. Norexport
  • 6. Application of the international terminology standards
  • 7. Conclusions
  • 8. References
  • Translation Subcompetences and Terminological Implication Levels in Professional Translators: Olga Umaña, Mercedes Suárez
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Theoretical framework
  • 2.1. Translation competence
  • 2.2. Terminological competence
  • 2.3. Translation problems
  • 3. Methodology
  • 3.1. Type of research
  • 3.2. Participants selection criteria
  • 3.3 Instruments to measure translation subcompetences and terminological implication levels
  • 3.3.1. Texts labelled with translation problems
  • 3.3.2. Value scale of the labelled texts
  • 3.3.3. Semi-structured interview
  • 3.3.4. Structured interview
  • 4. Analysis and results
  • 4.1. Comparison of translation subcompetences according to directionality
  • 4.1.1. Direct translation task
  • 4.1.2. Inverse translation task
  • 4.1.3. Semi-structured interview
  • 4.1.4. Structured interview
  • 5. Conclusions
  • 6. Acknowledgments
  • 7. References
  • Didactic Issues
  • Translating Scientific and Technical Texts: The Translation Workshop as a Didactic Tool: Norman Gómez
  • 1. Introduction
  • 1.1. General context of scientific and technical translation courses in Colombia
  • 1.2. Rationale for the design of “Traducir textos científicos y técnicos”
  • 2. Theoretical framework
  • 2.1. Brief introduction to the scientific language
  • 2.2 Translation competence
  • 2.3. Text typology, register and genre
  • 2.4. Translation assessment
  • 3. The book “Traducir textos científicos y técnicos”
  • 3.1. Use of I&CT in the workshops
  • 4. Sample answers from the students’ portfolios
  • 5. Conclusions
  • 6. References
  • Some Didactic Strategies for the Teaching of Noun Phrases with Complex Premodification from English into Spanish: Alejandro Arroyave, Gabriel Quiroz
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Problems found in translation trainees
  • 2.1. Identification of the head
  • 2.2. Translation of NP
  • 2.2. Translation problems found
  • 3. Experiment in translation trainees
  • 3.1. Description of the experiment
  • 3.1.1. Participants
  • 3.1.2. Materials
  • 4. Results of the experiment
  • 4.1. Data analysis
  • 4.1.1. Results of the pretest
  • 4.1.2. Application of the workshop
  • 4.1.3. Results of the posttest
  • 5. Some Didactic Strategies
  • 5.1. Strategies generated for the translator trainees
  • 5.2. Strategies generated for the translation teacher
  • 6. Discussion
  • 7. References
  • Toward the Design of a Hybrid Learning Environment Based on Text Linguistics for Teacher Training in French as a Foreign Language (FFL) in Colombian Universities: Jorge M. Molina, Georges Antoniadis
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Research context: the formation of FFL teachers in Colombia
  • 3. Problem and working hypotheses
  • 4. Project foundations
  • 4.1. A project based on text linguistics
  • 4.2. CALL and NLP
  • 4.3. Towards a blended learning environment
  • 5. Project actions
  • 5.1. Corpus compilation
  • 5.2. Elaboration of pedagogical sequences
  • 5.2.1. Phases included in the sequences
  • 5.2.2. Types of tasks
  • 5.2.3. Design and computer implementation
  • 6. Conclusion
  • 7. References
  • Textual Issues
  • Rhetorical Description of the PhD History Thesis Genre: an Analysis from two Discourse Communities on the Basis of the Corpus TeDiCE-2010: Juan David Martínez
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2.1. Theoretical framework
  • 2.1.1. Discourse community and discourse genre
  • 2.1.2. The doctoral thesis genre and its rhetorical analysis
  • 3. Methodology
  • 4. Results and discussion
  • 4.1. Rhetorical-functional structure of doctoral theses in history
  • 4.1.1. The displacement
  • 5. Conclusions
  • 6. References
  • Metaphor in Colombian Slang: A Quantitative Analysis: Juan Manuel Pérez
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Theoretical framework
  • 3. Methodology and data analysis
  • 3.1. Evaluation
  • 3.2. Behavior
  • 3.3. Shape (concrete)
  • 3.4. Result
  • 3.5. Function
  • 4. Conclusions
  • 5. References
  • Variation of Metaphor Use across Rhetorical Structure in two Genres: Rafael Zapata Dederle
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Rationale
  • 2.1. Identification of linguistic metaphors
  • 2.2. Quantitative aspects of metaphor
  • 2.3. Identification of rhetorical goal units
  • 3. Corpus
  • 3.1. Sampling method
  • 3.2. Reliability tests: inter-rater agreement
  • 4. Results
  • 4.1. Three-way interaction between rhetorical goal, metaphor and word class in newsletters and research articles
  • 5. Conclusion
  • 6. Acknowledgements
  • 7. References
  • Text Functions and Citation Patterns in Specialized Texts: A Contrastive Study of the Case Report Genre: Carlos Muñoz Torres
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Theoretical framework
  • 3. Methodology
  • 3.1. Corpus
  • 3.2. Methodology of Analysis
  • 4. Analysis and results
  • 5. Citation and citation patterns
  • 6. Conclusions
  • 7. References
  • Explicit Denominative Variation Markers and their Implications in Translation: Mercedes Suárez
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Theoretical framework
  • 2.1. Semantic relations and discourse markers
  • 3. Methodology
  • 3.1. Specialized corpus and selection criteria
  • 3.2. Detection and selection of the Terminological Units (TUs) characteristic of the subject
  • 3.3. Screening and selection of explicit denominative variants
  • 3.4. Performance of the explicit denominative variation markers
  • 4. Analysis and results of the ST
  • 4.1. Expansion
  • 4.1.1. Metaphorical expansion
  • 4.1.2. Nonmetaphorical Expansion
  • 4.2. Reduction
  • 4.2.1. Reduction by elision
  • 4.2.2. Reduction by abbreviation
  • 4.3. Refocalization
  • 4.3.1. External Refocalization
  • 4.3.2. Internal Refocalization
  • 5. Contrastive analysis and results
  • 5.1. Absolute coincidence of the EDV in the TT
  • 5.2. Relative coincidence of the EDV in the TT
  • 5.2.1. Identical variation type and subtype, different marker
  • 6. Conclusions
  • 7. Acknowledgments
  • 8. References
  • Notes on Contributors



1.The origins

Studies in LSP in Colombia began in the mid 90’s, mainly in the discipline of terminology with the visit of Prof. Dr. Picht from Copenhagen Business School. Then, a set of leading visiting professors offered a series of seminars on terminology, translation, LSP, information retrieval and computer applications. These events were promoted during the 90's and part of the 2000. Among those professors Cabré, Budin, Schmitz, and Picht. Dr. Galinski from Infoterm also supported terminology activities in Colombia.

At the national level, the pioneer in the discipline was Prof. Bertha Nelly Cardona (also in Latin America), who promoted some of the authors of this book, wrote the first articles, introduced changes in curricula and research in library terminology. Then, some full-time professors including Gustavo Zapata, Gonzalo Velásquez, Cecilia Plested, Emma Rodríguez, among others, continued the path.

Almost immediately, research groups were created in the cities of Medellín, Cali and Manizales. Curiously, at that time no groups were created in Bogotá, the Colombian capital city, nor there does not exist any as of today. Graduate Diploma studies in translation, as the major area, were institutionalized in the Universities of Antioquia, Valle, Rosario, Javeriana, Andes, Pamplona, Nariño, Autonomous ← 9 | 10 → University of Manizales, and National University. However, Masters in Translation and LSP were only created in 2008. EAN University, Autonomous University of Manizales, and University of Antioquia now offer this degree.

Since then, studies in translation, terminology, and LSP have spread out throughout the country. Many papers have been published since then in national and international journals by Colombian authors. Likewise, the ICONTEC TC 218 Committee, mirror Committee of ISO TC 37 (Terminology and other language and content resources) was created at the end of the 90’s, producing some terminology standards and actively participating in the international scenario, leading the Latin-American countries together with Mexico.

2.Contents of the book

This book comprises a set of 19 chapters derived from M.A. and Ph.D. theses of Colombian authors written in Austria, Chile, Colombia, France, Norway, and Spain. The multidisciplinary view of this book includes scholars from translation, linguistics, computer engineering, philosophy, and library and information science. These chapters deal with linguistic, phraseological, terminological, didactic, and textual issues related to terminology, translation, corpus linguistics, and computational linguistics from the Universidad Pompeu Fabra, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Universidad de Antioquia, Universidad de Medellín, Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Medellín Campus), Universidad Autónoma de Manizales, Universidad EAFIT, Wake Forest University, Norwegian School of Economics NHH, Université Grenoble-Alpes, and Université Paris VII.

The volume is divided into five sections: Linguistic Issues, Phraseological Issues, Terminological Issues, Didactic Issues, and Textual Issues. In a certain way, this reflects the major research areas in the fields of languages in Colombia. ← 10 | 11 →

2.1.Linguistic issues

The book opens with the chapter Description and Analysis of Initialisms in the Genomics and Environment Subject Fields, in which John Jairo Giraldo carries out the linguistic and statistical analysis of initialisms in the specialized discourse of the Genomics and Environment domains in order to establish linguistic patterns to develop automatic recognition systems to facilitate the building or updating of online abbreviation dictionaries.

In the chapter Syntactic Features in Specialized Texts: A Comparison of Two Syntactic Patterns in Texts of Different Levels of Specialization, Oscar Calvache and Mercedes Suárez study the identification and description of two syntactic features in dentistry texts: passive voice and terminological noun phrases in order to compare these features quantitatively and qualitatively in texts of different levels of specialization (books, magazines, journals and Internet articles).

In the chapter Applying linguistic methods to job specification documents analysis: lexical and grammatical features for tackling business process analysis, Bell Manrique, Diego Burgos, and Carlos Zapata present a computational approach to analyze job specification documents by using a range of resources from a linguistic perspective using Swales genre analysis approach to the analysis of a corpus.

In the chapter Ontology of Verbs about Political Violence, Ana María Tangarife, Germán Urrego, and Jorge Antonio Mejía build a background through the concepts of semantic web, information retrieval, computational linguistics, natural language processing, verbal treatment, and classification. It makes a strong emphasis on ontologies, going through its characteristics, types, design and construction, as well as the different applications in which they can be used. They also offer a general description of the political violence phenomenon in Colombia, describing its characteristics, the theoretical referents and the practical field, taking its linguistic analysis to finally show the textual analysis model from verbs.

Julio Foronda, Germán Urrego and Gloria Giraldo present in the chapter A Case-Grammar-Based Model for Tagging Spanish Texts a model for the text representation based on case grammar, a summary of the grammatical categories of the Spanish language, and a model of ← 11 | 12 → extended tags covering the grammatical categories of the language as well as the application.

2.2.Phraseological issues

In the chapter Challenges in the Translation of General and Specialized Phraseology, Germán Mira and John Jairo Giraldo identify practical criteria to be applied in the search for equivalence when translating both GL and LSP phraseology through a comparative analysis of the translation of phraseological units taken from a literary and a medicine corpus, respectively.

In the chapter Towards a Definition of Specialized Collocations, Pedro Patiño aims at approaching the study of the collocations that include a term as the node of the collocation and co-occur with other lexical items such as verbs, nouns, adjectives or adverbs. The examples are drawn from a parallel corpus of specialized texts from the subject field of international trade, composed by 16 Free Trade Agreements (FTA) written in English and Spanish.

2.3.Terminological issues

In the chapter On Premodified Terms in 5 Specialized Dictionaries, Gabriel Quiroz and Alejandro Arroyave analyze premodified terms in five specialized dictionaries. The authors extracted, classified, and linguistically analyzed noun phrases with more than two premodifiers in the field of medicine, lab techniques, economics, finance, and statistics. Results show tendencies in pattern length, POS preferences, morphology trends and premodified patterns. The results of this description can be useful for terminology extraction, dictionary making and terminology teaching, among others.

In the chapter An Image-Term Co-occurrence Model for Multilingual Terminology Alignment and Cross-Language Image Indexing, Diego Burgos presents a bimodal model that takes advantage of the co-occurrence of images and terms in technical documentation for term extraction and alignment in order to build a prototype which ← 12 | 13 → integrates techniques of content-based image retrieval to use images as a pivotal component to link equivalent terms.

In the chapter International Terminology Standards Application into the Export Sector in Colombia, Juan Carlos Díaz aims to prove the application of the ISO/TC 37 International Terminology Standards in a particular area of the Colombian economy to improve a given subject field and especially within the field of international trade.

Olga Umaña and Mercedes Suárez, in their chapter entitled Translation Subcompetences and Terminology Practice Levels in Professional Translators show the outcomes of a study on Translation Subcompetences and Terminology Practice Levels in Professional Translators.

2.4.Didactic issues

Not many sci&tech translation handbooks have been written from English into Spanish. In the chapter Translating Scientific and Technical Texts: The Translation Handbook as a didactic tool, Norman Gómez relates the experiences of writing and using the Handbook for Teaching Translation of Scientific and Technical Texts with undergraduate students at the University of Antioquia as part of their translation courses at the School of Languages.

In the chapter Some Didactic Strategies for the Teaching of Noun Phrases with Complex Premodification from English into Spanish, Alejandro Arroyave and Gabriel Quiroz present a proposal for the teaching of the translation of noun phrases with multiple premodification from English into Spanish. Starting from a corpus-based linguistic description and an experiment with translation apprentices, the authors describe some didactic strategies for the teaching and learning of this grammatical feature.

Mauricio Molina and Georges Antoniadis present the chapter Toward the Constitution of a Hybrid Learning Environment for the FFL Teacher’s Training in Colombian Universities Based on Text Linguistics, in which they point out the importance for teaching and learning French as a Foreign Language (FFL) of computer systems based on the procedures and results of Natural Language Processing ← 13 | 14 → (NLP) at the textual level. The computer program uses a corpus and NLP applications for training future teachers in FFL within Colombian universities.

2.5.Textual issues

In his chapter Rhetorical-Functional Description and Variation of the PhD Thesis: An Analysis from Two Disciplines and two discursive communities based on the corpus TeDiCE-2010, Juan David Martínez presents a genre, geographical, and variational approach to describe Ph.D. theses written in Chile and Spain in the fields of History and Physics in order to identify new rhetorical traits and rhetorical variation.

In the chapter Metaphor in Colombian Slang: A Quantitative Analysis, Juan Manuel Pérez identifies and analyzes the role of metaphor in the development of new senses in Colombian slang deriving from words already present in the Spanish Royal Academy Dictionary, thus generating polysemy.

In the chapter Variation in metaphor use across rhetorical structure of two registers, Rafael Zapata discusses the possibility of metaphor contributing to textuality, reporting on the results of MIPVU (Steen et al, 2010) and Move analyses (Swales 2004) for 20 newsletters and 20 research articles on bioenergy.

In his chapter Citation Patterns and their Function in a Written Medical Corpus of the Case Report Genre, Carlos Muñoz reports the identification of the text functions of Spanish and English medical corpora of the Case Report genre from a Translation Studies perspective and the comparison and description of the frequency of citations and citation patterns of a medical corpus.

Finally, Mercedes Suárez presents her chapter Explicit Denominative Variation Markers (MVDE) and their Implications in Translation, in which she shows the results of a study on Explicit Denominative Variation Markers (MVDE) in order to detect the pragmatic and translation variants derived from the use of the discourse markers called, known as, named, or, parenthesis, referred to, termed for and viewed, taken from a specialized parallel corpus. ← 14 | 15 →


ISBN (Book)
Publication date
2014 (April)
Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, Frankfurt am Main, New York, Oxford, Wien, 2014. 339 pp., num. tables and graphs

Biographical notes

Gabriel Quiroz Herrera (Volume editor) Pedro Patino Garcia (Volume editor)

Gabriel Quiroz is Associate Professor of Translation at Universidad de Antioquia, Colombia. He is Coordinator of the Research Group in Translation and New Technologies (TNT). He holds a PhD in Applied Linguistics from Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Spain. His research interests are focused on specialized translation, specialized noun phrases, corpus linguistics, and terminology. Pedro Patiño is Assistant Professor of Translation at Universidad de Antioquia, Colombia, and PhD scholar at NHH Norwegian School of Economics, Norway. He is Researcher of the Research Group TNT. He holds an MA in Linguistics and Technological Applications from Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Spain. His research focus is on specialized translation, specialized phraseology, corpus linguistics, and terminology.


Title: LSP in Colombia