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The Trend of «Socializing Social Welfare» Policy in China

A study on Service Quality and Social Capital in the Society-run Home for the Aged in Beijing

by Hua Ding (Author)
©2015 Monographs XVIII, 323 Pages

Summary

China has one-fifth of the world’s total elderly population. This rapidly aging population presents serious challenges to the state to develop a social service system. To satisfy increasing demands for diversified and continuous care, a policy known as «Socializing social welfare» was introduced to assist in the reformation of social services. Under the policy, private and non-government sectors are encouraged to provide social services that were previously monopolized by the government. The most significant result of the reform is the growth of Society-run Home for the Aged (SRH) that aimes to provide fee-based institutional care for the elderly. This study examines service quality in the emergent SRH from the perspective of residents and, in the context of «Socializing Social Welfare» policy reform, explores the influence of social capital in the SRH on service quality. With the findings of the study, possible strategies on policy-making and clarification of government’s responsibility are inspired. Moreover, the analysis on social capital reveales the core problems of care service in the SRH and suggestes useful measures for improvement.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author(s)/editor(s)
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgements
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Tables
  • List of Figures
  • List of Appendices
  • Abbreviations
  • Chapter One: Introduction
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Why Study the SRH?
  • 1.2.1 Population Aging
  • 1.2.1.1 Elderly Population in China
  • 1.2.1.2 Elderly Population in Beijing
  • 1.2.1.3 Factors that Cause Population Aging
  • 1.2.2 Increasing Demands for Institutional Care Services
  • 1.2.2.1 Transformation of Care Model in China
  • 1.2.2.2 Condition of Institutional Care Service for the Elderly in China
  • 1.2.2.3 Condition of Institutional Care Service for the Elderly in Beijing
  • 1.2.2.4 Necessity for Developing Non-government institutional Care Service
  • 1.2.3 Scarcity of Research on Service Quality of the SRH
  • 1.3 Objectives
  • 1.4 Organization of the Book
  • Chapter Two: Literature Review: Background and Relevant Concepts
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Background of the Study: External and Internal Context for the SRH
  • 2.2.1 Reform of Social Service System in the West: “Privatization”
  • 2.2.2 Policy Reform in China: “Socializing Social Welfare”
  • Stage of Initiation
  • Stage of Formation
  • Stage of Maturity
  • 2.2.3 Summary of “Socializing Social Welfare” Policy Reform
  • 2.3 Society-run Home for the Aged
  • 2.3.1 History of Civilian Organization before Economic Reform
  • 2.3.2 Recent Development and Categorization of Civilian Organizations
  • 2.3.3 Financial Condition
  • 2.3.4 Professional Social Work
  • 2.3.5 Culture of Philanthropy
  • 2.3.6 The Emerging Society-run Home for the Aged
  • 2.4 Analyzing Service Quality of the SRH: From Residents’ Perspective
  • 2.4.1 Overview of Service Quality
  • 2.4.2 Conceptual and Theoretical Construction of Resident Satisfaction
  • 2.4.3 Personal Factors Affecting the Assessment of Service Quality in Residential Care Agencies
  • 2.4.4 Organizational Factors Affecting the Service Quality in Residential Care Agencies
  • 2.5 Social Capital
  • 2.5.1 Conceptualization of Social Capital
  • 2.5.2 Forms and Scope of Social Capital
  • 2.5.3 Key Dimensions of Social Capital
  • Trust
  • Networks
  • Norms
  • 2.5.4 Social Capital at the Organizational Level
  • 2.5.5 Measurement of Social Capital
  • 2.5.6 Analysis and Measurement of Social Capital in the SRH in this Study
  • 2.6 Chapter Summary
  • Chapter Three: Research Questions, Hypotheses, and Theoretical Framework
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research Questions
  • 1. What is the quality of care service in the SRH?
  • 2. What are the mechanisms and functions of “Socializing Social Welfare” policy on the SRH?
  • 3. What are the impacts of social capital on service quality in the SRH?
  • 3.3 Hypotheses
  • 1. Personal Characteristics of the Residents Tend to Affect their Assessments on Quality of Service in the SRH
  • 2. Social Capital in the SRH Tends to Affect the Quality of Service
  • 3. Organization Types tend to affect the Quality of Service in the SRH
  • 4. There is a Relationship between Organization Types and Social Capital in the SRH
  • 3.4 Theoretical Framework
  • 3.4.1 Theoretical Framework of Dimensions and Domains of Service Quality in the SRH
  • Structure
  • Process
  • Outcome
  • 3.4.2 Theoretical Framework of Factors Affecting Service Quality in the SRH
  • “Socializing Social Welfare” policy as the institutional environment for the SRH in the framework
  • Organization type as one of the main factors affecting service quality of the SRH in the framework
  • Social capital as one of the main factors that affects service quality of the SRH in the framework
  • Relation of residents’ characteristics with assessment of service quality in the SRH in the framework
  • 3.5 Chapter Summary
  • Chapter Four: Methodology: Synergy Between Quantitative and Qualitative Strategies
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Research Site: Why Select Beijing?
  • 4.3 Research Method: Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Strategies
  • 4.3.1 Rationale of Using Mixed Methods
  • 4.3.2 Mixed Methods Design in this Study
  • 4.3.3 Entering the Research Site
  • 4.3.4 Interviewer
  • 4.4 Method for Quantitative Study
  • 4.4.1 Sample Size
  • 4.4.2 Content of Questionnaires
  • 4.4.3 Criteria for Selecting Elderly Respondents
  • 4.4.4 Sampling Method and Data Collection
  • Pilot Testing
  • Pilot Study
  • Main Study
  • 4.4.5 Data Analysis of Quantitative Data
  • 4.5 Method for Qualitative Study
  • 4.5.1 Data Collection Strategies
  • 4.5.1.1 Unstructured Interview with Officials
  • 4.5.1.2 Semi-structured Interview with Managers of the SRH
  • 4.5.1.3 Secondary Data Analysis
  • 4.5.2 Data Analysis of Qualitative Data
  • 4.5.2.1 Strategies of Data Analysis
  • 4.5.2.2 Themes and Codes
  • 4.5.3 Trustworthiness of Qualitative Research
  • Prolonged Engagement On-site
  • Peer Debriefing
  • Triangulation
  • 4.6 Response Rate
  • 4.7 Chapter Summary
  • Chapter Five: Social Capital Analysis of the SRH: Trust, Networks, and Norms
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Trust
  • 5.2.1 Trust Relationship between the SRH and the Government: Unstable Win-win Partnership or Mutual Distrust Relationship?
  • Unstable Win-win Partnership?
  • Mutual Distrust Relationship?
  • 5.2.2 Trust Relationship between the SRH and the Society: Variation among Different Types of SRHs
  • 5.2.3 Trust Relationship between the SRH and Its Staff
  • 5.3 Networks
  • 5.3.1 Networks of the SRH with the Government: Linking
  • Policy Support: Nominal
  • Financial Support: Rare and Irregular
  • Technical Support: Inefficient
  • Official Visit (慰问) and Commendation (表彰): Discriminatory Moral Support
  • 5.3.2 Networks of the SRH within the Residential Care Service System: Bonding
  • Professional Association and Communication among the SRH
  • Networks of the SRH with Collectives and Work Units
  • Networks of the Managers: Does it Work?
  • 5.3.3 Networks of the SRH with the Society: Bridging
  • Networks with Neighbors: Host Village and Relevant Sectors
  • Connections with Volunteers
  • 5.4 Norms
  • 5.4.1 Regulations and Rules for the SRH: Loose and Formalistic
  • 5.4.2 Agreement on Residence and Settlement of Disputes: Who is the Disadvantaged Group?
  • 5.4.3 Identification of the SRH to the Value of Official Goals and Welfare Service
  • 5.5 Chapter Summary and Discussion
  • Chapter Six: Scale Construction and Scale Validation
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Scale Construction
  • 6.2.1 Review of Existing Measuring Instruments and Frameworks on Service Quality in Residential Care Service Agencies
  • 6.2.2 Instrument Design in this Study
  • 6.2.2.1 Resident Satisfaction Scale
  • Living Environment
  • Staff
  • Daily Care and Health Care Services
  • Meal
  • Activities
  • Psycho-social Care
  • Response Categories
  • 6.2.2.2 Overall Assessment Scale
  • 6.2.2.3 Adjusted Pfeiffer’s Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaires (SPMSQ)
  • 6.2.3 Expert Review
  • 6.2.4 Pilot testing
  • 6.3 Scale Validation
  • 6.3.1 Pilot study—Phase I
  • 6.3.1.1 Missing Data in the Pilot Study
  • 6.3.1.2 Reliability of the Scales in the Pilot Study
  • Coefficient alpha in the Pilot Study
  • Split-half Reliability in the Pilot Study
  • 6.3.1.3 Factor Analysis in the Pilot Study
  • 6.3.1.4 Validity of the Scales in the Pilot Study
  • Content Validity
  • Construct Validity
  • Concurrent Validity
  • 6.3.1.5 Summary of Scale Validation in the Pilot Study
  • 6.3.2 Main study—Phase II
  • 6.3.2.1 Missing Data in the Main Study
  • 6.3.2.2 Reliability of the Scales in the Main Study
  • Coefficient alpha in the Main Study
  • Split-half Reliability in the Main Study
  • 6.3.2.3 Factor analysis in the Main Study
  • 6.3.2.4 Validity of the scales in the Main Study
  • Content Validity
  • Construct Validity
  • Concurrent Validity
  • 6.3.2.5 Summary of Scale Validation in the Main Study
  • 6.4 Chapter Summary
  • Chapter Seven: Dimensions, Domains, and Model of Service Quality in the SRH
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Extracting Dimensions of Service Quality in the SRH: Factor Analysis
  • 7.2.1 Principles and Assumptions in Factor Analysis
  • Basic Principles
  • Factorability
  • Multicollinearity and Singularity
  • 7.2.2 Number of Factors
  • 7.2.3 Nine Extracted Dimensions of Service Quality in the SRH
  • Factor One: Activities
  • Factor Two: Staff
  • Factor Three: Meal (High Level)
  • Factor Four: Meal (Low Level)
  • Factor Five: Environment and Facilities
  • Factor Six: Psychological Care
  • Factor Seven: Daily Care and Health Care
  • Factor Eight: Response
  • Factor Nine: Respect
  • 7.3 Extracting Domains and Model of Service Quality in the SRH: Factor Analysis
  • 7.3.1 Three Extracted Domains of Service Quality
  • 7.3.2 Relationship between the Three Domains of Service Quality
  • Normality
  • Linearity
  • Muticollinearity
  • 7.4 Enriched Model of Service Quality in the SRH
  • 7.5 Overall Assessment of Service Quality in the SRH
  • 7.6 Chapter Summary and Discussion
  • Chapter Eight: Discussion
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Service Quality of the SRH—From Residents’ Perspective
  • 8.2.1 Service Quality Measured in Three Domains
  • 8.2.2 Residents’ Characteristics Affecting Assessment of Service Quality: Discussion of Expectation, Requirement, and Adaptation
  • 8.2.3 Organizational Characteristics Affecting Quality of Service: Discussion of Social Capital and Resources
  • 8.2.4 Summary of Service Quality in the SRH
  • 8.3 “Socializing Social Welfare” Policy—Government’s Strategy in Encouragement
  • 8.3.1 Discussion: Special Characteristics of the “Socializing Social Welfare” Policy
  • 8.3.2 Discussion: Implementation Mechanism of the “Socializing Social Welfare” Policy
  • Mechanism of Implementation of Registration Policies
  • Mechanism of Implementation of Preferential Policies
  • Mechanism of Implementation of Regulatory Policies
  • 8.3.3 Discussion: Impact of “Socializing Social Welfare” Policy on the SRH
  • “Socializing Social Welfare” Policy as an Important Institutional Environment for the SRH
  • “Socializing Social Welfare” Policy as an Important Factor Affecting Social Capital and service quality of the SRH
  • 8.3.4 Summary of the “Socializing Social Welfare” policy
  • 8.4 Factors Affecting Service Quality of the SRH—Social Capital
  • 8.4.1 Isolation of the SRH: Scarcity of Social Capital
  • 8.4.2 Impact of Social Capital on Structure, Process and Outcome of Care Service in the SRH
  • 8.4.3 Differences in Service Quality in the Five Types of SRHs: Interpretation of Social Capital
  • 8.4.4 Development of the Social Capital Concept: The Interactive Nature of the Three Dimensions
  • 8.5 Chapter Summary
  • Chapter Nine: Implications and Limitations
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Implication: Policy-making and Clarification of the Government’s Responsibility
  • 9.2.1 Changing Guiding Principle and Procedure in Policy-making
  • 9.2.2 Defining the Government’s Responsibility
  • 9.3 Implication: Assessment and Improvement of Service Quality in Residential Care Service Institutions
  • 9.3.1 Developing a Useful Instrument for Assessing Service Quality from Residents’ Perspective
  • 9.3.2 Measures of Improving Service Quality
  • Strengthening the Quality Monitoring Function of the Civil Affairs Bureau
  • Developing Professional Education and Improving Quality of Practitioner
  • Establishing A Professional Association
  • Encouraging Citizen Participation in Monitoring the Service Quality of the SRH
  • 9.4 Implications: Improvement of Social Capital in the SRH
  • 9.4.1 Changing the Isolated Situation of the SRH
  • 9.4.2 Building up Identification of the SRH with Welfare Values
  • 9.5 Implication: Diversification and Continuation of Care Service for the Elderly
  • 9.6 Limitations and Future Research
  • 9.6.1 Research Site
  • 9.6.2 Research Subjects
  • 9.7 Conclusion
  • References
  • Appendices
  • Appendix 1
  • Declaration for Obtaining Consent from the Elderly Respondent
  • Appendix 2
  • Questionnaires for Pilot Testing Resident Satisfaction on Services in Society-run Homes for the Aged in Beijing
  • Part One: Mental Status
  • Part Two: Background Information of the Respondent
  • Part Three: Resident Satisfaction Scale
  • 1. Living Environment
  • 2. Staff
  • 3. Daily Care and Health Care Services
  • 4. Meal
  • 5. Activities
  • 6. Psycho-social Care
  • Part Four: Overall Assessment Satisfaction
  • Appendix 3
  • Questionnaires for Pilot Study Resident Satisfaction on Services in Society-run Homes for the Aged in Beijing
  • Part One: Mental Status
  • Part Two: Background Information of the Respondent
  • Part Three: Resident Satisfaction Scale
  • Part Four: Overall Assessment Satisfaction
  • Appendix 4
  • Questionnaires for Main Study Resident Satisfaction on Services in Society-run Homes for the Aged in Beijing
  • Part One: Mental Status
  • Part Two: Background Information of the Respondent
  • Part Three: Resident Satisfaction Scale
  • 1. Living Environment
  • 2. Staff
  • 3. Daily Care and Health Care Services
  • 4. Meal
  • 5. Activities
  • 6. Psycho-social Care
  • Part Four: Overall Assessment Satisfaction
  • Appendix 5
  • Resident Satisfaction Scale after Two Phases of Validation
  • Appendix 6
  • Questionnaire on Social Capital and Resource in the Society-run Home for the Aged in Beijing
  • Appendix 7
  • Interview Guidelines for Managers of the Society-run Home for the Aged
  • Index

| xiii →

List of Tables

| xv →

List of Figures

| xvi →

List of Appendices

| xvii →

Abbreviation

| 1 →

Chapter One
Introduction

1.1 Introduction

The aging of population and its comprehensive effects have attracted increasing attention around the world. As a country that has the largest population of elderly, China is facing a serious challenge to the existing care service system. How to improve quality of social services and develop diversified and continuous care for the elderly has become a very important issue to the government as well as to academics. In response to these challenges, the “Socializing Social Welfare” policy was introduced by the Ministry of Civil Affairs (MCA) as a new orientation for the reformation of social services. The intention of the reform was to shift responsibility for welfare service from the government to the “society”1, mobilize individuals, social groups, collectives, and enterprises to share responsibility for care service provision, and satisfy the increasing demand for social services for the elderly, especially with regard to institutional care service.

Society-run home for the aged (SRH) experienced swift growth under the policy of “Socializing Social Welfare” policy in recent years. Non-government resources have invested in new types of care service institutions with the aim to provide fee-charging institutional care services for the older adults. The government expects that “society” could take on an even greater role and assume more responsibilities for providing institutional care for the aged in the near future. However, is it possible for the underdeveloped “society” to fulfill this tremendous task? Is it feasible to put millions of aged people under the care of these emergent institutions? Is the quality of service in these institutions reliable? The study was thus ← 1 | 2 → focused on these society-run service institutions and examined service quality and the attendant factors that affect quality of service in the SRH. The study is expected to provide a better understanding of the operation mechanism, to reveal key problems in this type of care service institutions and to put forward possible solutions.

Details

Pages
XVIII, 323
Year
2015
ISBN (PDF)
9783035107807
ISBN (ePUB)
9783035196054
ISBN (MOBI)
9783035196047
ISBN (Softcover)
9783034315142
DOI
10.3726/978-3-0351-0780-7
Language
English
Publication date
2015 (January)
Keywords
elderly population reform government
Published
Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, Frankfurt am Main, New York, Oxford, Wien, 2015. XVIII, 323 pp., num. tables

Biographical notes

Hua Ding (Author)

Hua Ding is an assistant researcher in the Institute of Social Science Survey in Peking University in China. She got PhD’s degree at the University of Hong Kong. Her research interest focuses on social policy, aging issues, and social survey methods. She gained national research funds and published several academic papers and a book in China.

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Title: The Trend of «Socializing Social Welfare» Policy in China