Schweizer Jahrbuch für Musikwissenschaft- Annales Suisses de Musicologie- Annuario Svizzero di Musicologia
Neue Folge / Nouvelle Série / Nuova Serie- 33 (2013)- Redaktion / Rédaction / Redazione: Luca Zoppelli
Die Artikel von Föllmi, Fahrenkämper und Vincent bieten Überlegungen und Erkenntnisse philologischen, archivalischen und historischen Charakters über drei Persönlichkeiten der schweizerischen Kulturgeschichte der letzten drei Jahrhunderte und deren Wirkungskontexte. Sie beleuchten die Komplexität ihrer Beziehungen zu politischen und sozialen Umfeldern in den europäischen Metropolen. Die Studien von Ahrend und Roccatagliati sind auf Forschungsinitiativen zurückzuführen, die von Schweizer Universitäten gefördert sind. Schliesslich entstammen die bedeutenden archivalischen und philologischen Beiträge von Lucentini und Zitellini. Dal Molin, Dotto und Girardi unterstützen mit ihren Beiträgen die anderen, für dieses Heft wesentlichen Themen: das 20. Jh., die Erscheinungsformen des Kompositionsprozesses im Musiktheater – vornehmlich dem Italienischen – und die Reflexion über Quellen, selbst wenn es sich nicht nur um ausdrücklich musikalische handelt.
Table Of Contents
- Zitierfähigkeit des eBooks
- Inhalt / Sommaire / Sommario
- Prefazione / Vorwort / Préface
- “Nuovamente ristampata con nuove aggiunte”: a study on the auto-revision activities of Maurizio Cazzati in his music reprints
- Zur Rekonstruktion der Musikbibliothek des Johann Rudolf Dömmelin (1728–1785) in der UB Basel
- Conspirateurs apolitiques ? Un ballo in maschera et le Risorgimento
- «Dal mio Fidias». Correspondances de Liszt et de Rossini avec la duchesse Colonna, dite Marcello
- “Cantava nel silenzio”: glimpses of nineteenth-century stage acting as reflected in examples of silent movie shorts on operatic subjects
- Puccini, Madama Butterfly e l’intertestualità: un prologo, tre casi e un epilogo
- Performance as source. A new document on the genesis of Berg’s Wozzeck
- Othmar Schoecks Oper Massimilla Doni und die nationalsozialistische Zensur
- Editorische Probleme des vertonten Textes in Anton Weberns George-Vertonungen. Beispiele zur aktuellen Arbeit an der Anton Webern Gesamtausgabe
- «Der Kontrapunkt der Linien ist durch den Kontrapunkt der Klangflächen abgelöst». I modelli policorali storici nella prospettiva di Luigi Nono
- Autoren / Auteurs / Autori
- Notes for Contributors
Il numero 33 dell’Annuario Svizzero di Musicologia include una serie di studi emananti dalla comunità scientifica svizzera, insieme ad alcuni prestigiosi apporti della ricerca internazionale: intende coprire uno spettro di interessi e soggetti il più ampio possibile, pur concentrandosi su alcuni poli tematici. Gli articoli di Föllmi, Fahrenkämper, Vincent apportano riflessioni e conoscenze di tipo filologico, archivistico e storico su tre figure della storia culturale svizzera degli ultimi tre secoli e sui contesti in cui operarono, illuminando al tempo stesso la natura complessa dei loro rapporti con gli ambiti sociali e politici delle metropoli europee. Gli studi di Ahrend e Roccatagliati emanano da iniziative di ricerca promosse dalle università elvetiche, mentre quelli di Lucentini e Zitellini, che offrono importanti risultati di natura filologica e archivistica, sono l’opera di giovani studiosi formatisi di recente nei nostri atenei. Gli interventi di Dal Molin, Dotto e Girardi, infine, integrano gli altri poli di interesse che strutturano questo volume: il ventesimo secolo, i modi del processo compositivo, il teatro musicale – segnatamente italiano – e la riflessione sulle fonti, incluse quelle di natura non strettamente musicale.
Sono grato ad Andrea Garavaglia, Louise Sykes e Delphine Vincent (Fribourg), che hanno collaborato alla redazione di questo volume; un ringraziamento sentito va al Pool di ricerca dell’Università di Friburgo per il suo sostegno.
Fribourg, settembre 2015
← 7 | 8 →
It is widely accepted that Maurizio Cazzati’s (1616–1678) contribution to musical history lays mostly in his pre-corellian violin sonatas and his limited production for trumpet. But by just glancing at a thematic catalog we learn that his output was much more vast and comprehensive. It seems that in reality he produced music in almost every genre available at the time, and was not shy of building a career based upon printing his music. Indeed he is the most prolific composer of his time, print-wise, topping up to 66 different opuses. If we take in account known reprints made during his lifetime (or shortly after) this number increases to 101.
The judgment of scholars towards Cazzati has been mostly harsh. In some way he is considered a musical “jack of all trades, master of none”, or a musician so anxious to commit his creations to the press that he would forego basic quality checks on his output. This is echoed by a very acerbic polemic in which he was involved during his lifetime, when some colleagues tried to demonstrate that he was a careless and ignorant composer.
But his printed musical legacy shows us another story. While it is undeniable that Cazzati’s output is sometimes of varying quality, we do not feel it should be censored in its entirety. The Author himself in some way acknowledged this fact, and went to great trouble to correct, modify and re-print some of his old music. This makes for a very interesting and unique case, the one of an Author thoroughly revisiting his printed output. Analyzing some of the most important aspects of this correctional enterprise will be the object of the next pages.
It is important to outline the basic facts of Cazzati’s life to better understand the relationship between his career and his output. A complete biography if out of the scope for this work, and excellent ones already exist that do need not to be duplicated,1 so we will concentrate on the facts of his career mostly related to his activity as printer. ← 11 | 12 →
We learn about his first position from the title page of his first opus, Salmi e messa a cinque (Venezia: Magni, 1641), that is organist and maestro di cappella in Sant’Andrea in Mantua. His career soon progressed, and he frequently changed posts: he worked for the Gonzaga family, then moved to Ferrara as maestro di cappella of the Accademia della Morte (1648), and then to Bergamo in Santa Maria Maggiore (1653). This chronology is easily deduced by following the dedications of his printed music. In fact it is apparent that his progressing career was followed by a constant production of printed music, producing eighteen opuses in just fifteen years (op. 1 is dated 1641 and op. 18 1656). It is evident from this how important he considered to divulge (and publicize) his music via the printing press.2
The turning point of his career was in 1657 when, after applying for the post, he was elected maestro di cappella in San Petronio in Bologna, the most prestigious maestro post in the city. Here he was highly paid and had at his disposition a complete and greatly qualified ensemble of musicians. For the annual feast of the city’s patron, St. Petronius, he had a virtually unlimited budget. His musical production blossomed and so did his printed output, which accounted for 39 fresh and new editions by 1671, year of his departure from the city. To accomplish this feat Cazzati set up his own printing press and teamed up with local booksellers to distribute his prints. The beginnings of his enterprise are still unclear, but we know that by the mid 1660s he had a printing shop inside his home in the back of San Petronio.3 From 1659 to 1664 he also had a five-year privilege, which is proudly mentioned in the frontispiece of each book printed by him. In a way probably not too uncommon for the time he used his privilegio to contract good agreements with the local booksellers,4 which he changed quite often in this initial period (Benacci, Pisarri, Dozza, Silvani). He also wisely set up commercial relations with Alessandro Vincenti in Venice (who printed Cazzati’s opp. from 7 to 17) to sell his books in that city. ← 12 | 13 →
In Bologna there was no active musical printing press at the time of Cazzati’s arrival,5 and it is not completely surprising that he, being so keen to use printing as a means for self promotion, would jump into this business. He had no rivals and completely dominated the musical market in the city for the first years. No one published music in Bologna except Cazzati, and Cazzati printed only Cazzati.
But this Cazzatian hegemony came with a high price, and this price was the complete alienation from the local musical community. Upon his arrival he carried out some invasive reforms to the Chapel in San Petronio (firing and re-auditioning all the musicians)6 that were not well digested by the local community. By 1658 a vitriolic dialogo7 started to circulate, in which a pupil asked some elucidations to his very sarcastic master about some “oddities” in the first Kyrie of Cazzati’s op. 17 (Messa e salmi a cinque voci, Venezia: Vincenti, 1655). This was formalized the subsequent year as a letter to the Fabbriceri, the directive committee of San Petronio, in an effort to prove that Cazzati was unfit for the position, signed by a privileged priest, Lorenzo Perti (who coincidentally was fired during Cazzati’s reform). The polemic would drag on for some years, and by the beginning of the 1660s the first organist in San Petronio, Giulio Cesare Arresti took part against Cazzati and started attacking him openly by publishing his contestations (and thus the whole querelle is generally referred to as the Cazzati-Arresti polemic).8 Arresti in turn was fired form his post as first organist.9 Cazzati during this whole turmoil stood silent, but the pressure of being attacked in print was so strong that in 1663 he printed his own reply to his adversaries, defending his music. In 1667, as we will see, he also reissued the offending Kyrie, with the “oddities” corrected.
By the time attacks started to be formalized in print, Cazzati’s privilegio had ended, and competition was fast to come. In 1665 Giacomo Monti, a local publisher, proudly started printing music, inaugurating his musical ← 13 | 14 → characters10 with a collection of Agostino Filippuzzi.11 By 1666 Monti’s press was at full regime and other Bolognese composers had a convenient local outlet for their music. In the same year the famous Accademia Filarmonica was founded, to which all the notable musicians of the city were aggregated, with the sole exception of Cazzati.
That the political wind was slowly changing is also shown by the fact that from this moment on Cazzati seemingly stops collaborating with local booksellers, and his prints do not carry an imprint anymore.12
It is in this last period of permanence in Bologna that Cazzati systematically starts re-editing his early prints, and republishing them. Since we know that he was publishing them by himself (or with the help of an assistant) in his home they make for an interesting and unique case of an author correcting himself.
In 1671 Cazzati resigned from his position in San Petronio, and retired to Mantua, where he continued to print and compose until his death in 1678. He left this world as a wealthy man, leaving behind him a big collection of paintings (the biggest one representing him), his printing shop, and a closet full of unsold prints.13
Reprints of Cazzati’s music at a glance
Cazzati’s music, during his lifetime and shortly after, was seemingly sought of, and we can count thirty-five surviving reprints. His music was reprinted by Magni in Venice, Monti and Silvani in Bologna, Phalése and Potter in Antwerp, and lastly by Cazzati14 in Bologna and Mantua.
All the North European prints were probably not authorized, but they are important because they transmit editions otherwise lost (op. 16, first impression of op. 18, op. 51). In contrast the reprints in Venice and Bologna had some degree of authorization (Silvani goes on to thank Cazzati for ← 14 | 15 → agreeing to the reprint), but the most important group is the one consisting of the reprints directly made by Cazzati in his own printing shop. These are eight collection including opp. 2, 3, 5, 7, 17, 18 and 39. Reading the inventory of Cazzati’s unsold books in his home in Mantua we can speculate that also opp. 10, 11 and 13 were reprinted by him in Bologna, as the title given in the inventory is different from the title of the first edition (or signature of the individual partbooks).15 It is also possible to speculate that op. 19 (Antifone letanie e Te Deum a otto voci, Venezia: Magni, 1658) was also reprinted at the beginning of the 1660s in Bologna, even if no copy exists nowadays.16 Op. 2 declares on its frontispiece that it is the third impression of the collection; no trace of the intermediate second reprint has yet surfaced.
The following table summarizes the surviving Cazzati reprints:
Tab. 1: Complete list of known reprints by Cazzati.
We did not include in the list op. 43 (Bologna: s.n., 1667), which was reprinted the subsequent year. It appears that the “reprint” and first edition are in this case exactly the same, to which only the frontispiece page was changed (it consists, on purpose, of a separately folded and bound page).19 We will also not discuss op. 39 any further since this reprint does not contain any differences from the first issue.
Cazzati’s reprinting activity can be grossly divided into two periods: 1659–1663 and 1667–1670. This distinction is important because we find different types of intervention in the two periods. The first years account for the reprints of at least opp. 18 and 2. Both these new editions contain very minor modifications to the musical text. In the second period, however, interventions become bigger and in some cases the account to complete rewrites of existing pieces. The opuses affected are 17, 3, 5 and 7. We do not know if any other reprints were issued between 1663 and 1667 as none have surfaced, so for commodity of schematization we shall keep the production separated into two groups.
The first reprinting phase
We cannot tell, exactly, when Maurizio Cazzati started printing music. We do know, however, that by the end of the year 1659 he was holding an important position in Bologna, had a privilegio to print in his pocket and had contracted with a Bolognese publisher, Dozza, for printing music. We do not know, yet, who possessed the printing equipment but it is likely that Cazzati was directly involved, as we do know that he published in his house just a couple years afterwards.20
By the end of this year two publications were made, inaugurating the long and proficuous season of Cazzati’s publishing activities. They are, opus 20, Cantate morali e spirituali, a new collection of cantatas, and a reprint of the 1656 op. 18, Suonate a doi violini. Op. 20 has its dedication signed on October 31st, 1659, so we can speculate that the first ever edition to be printed under Cazzati’s direct control was op. 18. ← 16 | 17 →
It is difficult to say why he chose such a new edition to reprint (not even three years had passed since the first impression). Possible explanations could be purely commercial ones, i. e. that it was sold out so fast that a second edition was profitable (as it happened with some other of his instrumental music). Other explanations include the fact that Cazzati wanted to distance himself from the Venetian printer Magni (who printed opp. 18 and 19) and take complete control of the publishing of his music. This option could be more plausible than it seems at first sight. Cazzati in his own catalog of printed music of 1664 indicates that both opp. 18 and 19 where printed in Bologna. As we just saw, op. 18 was indeed reprinted in this city, but there are no known reprints of op. 19 from this time, and we can speculate it was lost. By reissuing these two collections Cazzati untied himself completely from any further contact with Magni.
The new edition of op. 18 is luxurious and includes a beautiful wood engraving of Saint Petronious, a direct homage to the city. Unfortunately the original 1656 impression is incomplete, and only the Organo part survives, making it difficult for a page-to-page comparison. The musical contents, however, are transmitted to us via a reprint made the subsequent year (Antwerp, Phalèse, 1657),21 enabling us to thoroughly differentiate the contents of the original vs. Cazzati reprint.
Turning back to the 1656 and 1659 editions, it appears that the latter one was directly derived from the former one, as pagination is almost identical character by character. Musical spacing is just a bit tighter, but it appears that the layout was retained as the original in most places. This makes sense: since there are no notable interventions in the musical text there was no need to re-spread the music through the pagination.
The author’s interventions on this reprint are indeed bland, and by confronting the 1657 Phalèse edition (the original text) with the 1659 print we can only individuate some slightly different passages.
Ex. 1: Maurizio Cazzati, Sonata seconda,la Varana, op. 18, the last three measures as found in each edition. The alterations in this reprint are all minimal like this one.22
It is worth noting that later Nordic editions all still maintain the original reading of the 1656 print.23
In 1663 Cazzati and the Dozza firm prepared a reprint of the 1642 op. 2, Canzoni a doi violini, the only hybrid collection (instrumental canzonas and two vocal psalms) by this author. It seems that it was quite a success, as it is labeled “impressione terza”, i. e. third reprint. No trace or reference at the moment exists of the intermediate second reprint.
This third edition carries some very interesting details. First of all the title page proudly shows a typographer’s mark: it is Alessandro Vincenti’s mark. This may seem very puzzling at first. Why would a Bolognese print have a mark form a Venetian competitor? Also the mark seems to be redesigned from all of the marks used by Vincenti, probably made ad-hoc for this print. The solution to this problem comes from the fact that possibly the relationship between Cazzati and Vincenti was not one of rivalry but of collaboration. Cazzati had published the bulk of his music (eleven editions) up to 1655 with this Venetian firm, until it stopped doing business nearly at the same time. Almost coincidentally in 1663 Vincenti issued a catalog of all the books sold in his bookshop. As we noted above we find in it that he sold all the prints made by Cazzati in Bologna up to that year. In some way Vincenti was working as a selling agent for Cazzati’s books, indicating that close business collaboration existed between these two men. So it is not surprising that an edition by Cazzati celebrates Vincenti’s return to business in 1663.24
The second important feature of this edition is that it contains a numerous quantity of small changes. We find no big structural alterations, but many little almost undetectable details, probably as an attempt to correct small errors or to slightly improve the musical writing. There seems to be no commanding logic behind these interventions, as they are quite random and sparse. It could be, however, that Cazzati was trying to tame some little bizarre passages here and there. ← 18 | 19 →
For example, this unprepared suspension becomes correctly prepared in the reprint:
Ex. 2: Maurizio Cazzati, Canzone quinta, la Soda, op. 2. Unprepared suspensions happen from time to time in Cazzati’s music, but generally not to this extreme.
In some cases interesting elements unfortunately seem to be erased out: the violone part in the following example looses what made it a bit less straightforward:
Ex. 3: Maurizio Cazzati, Canzone sesta, l’Altera, op. 2, last measures. The passing notes in the violone part disappear in the new version. Also note that to format the example the two violin parts are swapped (violino primo plays under violino secondo in this passage).
The two violins often played together in parallel thirds, a very common feature at the time. In some cases the part writing is altered to use contrary motion, to achieve a more contrapuntal and less homogeneous effect:
Ex. 4: Maurizio Cazzati, Canzone ottava, la Falcona, op. 2. This example shows a subtle yet often found change in voice leading.
- ISBN (PDF)
- ISBN (ePUB)
- ISBN (MOBI)
- ISBN (Softcover)
- Publication date
- 2016 (January)
- Music Rossini Liszt Maurizio Cazzati Berg Anton Weber klangfläche
- Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, Frankfurt am Main, New York, Oxford, Wien, 2016. 248 S., 32 s/w. Abb