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Research on Humanities and Social Sciences

Communication, Social Sciences, Arts

by Hasan Arslan (Volume editor) Mehmet Ali Içbay (Volume editor) Christian Ruggiero (Volume editor)
Edited Collection 396 Pages

Summary

This book presents a collection of papers written by researchers, teachers, administrators, analysts and graduate students working and doing research in the field of social sciences. The scientific studies include a wide range of topics from the analysis of social science textbooks to the teacher image in newspapers, the relationship between self-efficacy and cognitive level and the role of organizational silence on the loneliness of academics in work life.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author(s)/editor(s)
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Table of Contents
  • Foreword
  • Communication
  • Popular Culture Between Integration and Resistance in the Perspective of Cultural Studies (Füsun Alver)
  • The Perception of Turkey and the World among the Business Community Professionals (Ali Murat Vural)
  • The Role of “motifs” in a Digital Storytelling Strategy Aiming to Didactic Remediation (Christian Ruggiero)
  • Business Models for Social Media: The Example of Facebook (Dinçer Atlı)
  • Security in Cyber Age: An Introduction to Difficulties in Security Issues in Digitalized World (Suat Dönmez)
  • Prestige of an Online Newspaper: The Decision of Future Journalists (Yıldıray Kesgin / Ahmet Faruk Çeçen)
  • Gender Stereotypes Via Anthropomorphology: A Semiological Analysis of Printed Advertisements (Sırma Oya Tekvar)
  • Using Social Media in City Marketing: A Content Analysis of Hashtags for Istanbul in Instagram (Selda Uca Ozer)
  • Social Sciences
  • The Comparison of Language and Literature Teaching in Turkey and Finland (Şenel Gerçek / Hülya Çevirme)
  • Special Training in the First Years of the Republic: The School of the Deaf, the Dumb and the Blind in Izmir (1923–1938) (Sadet Altay / Nejat İra)
  • Metaphors of School Administrators Related to Technological Leadership (Osman Ferda Beytekin)
  • Sukru Saracoglu and his Economic Policies in Early Republic Period (Rezzan Ayhan Türkbay)
  • An Analysis of the Logistic Performances of Countries (Mevhibe Ay Türkmen / Nurgül Evcim)
  • Consumer Ethnocentrism: A Comparative Field Research Between Gazi University and Abant Izzet Baysal University (Tuğçe Üner)
  • The Effect of Demographic Characteristics on Perception of Nepotism: A Study on Academicians (Işıl Usta)
  • The Solution of the Marriage Affairs in Terms of Phenomenology (Ünal Şentürk)
  • Econometric Analysis of the Production and Price of Grapes in Turkey (Fuat Yılmaz / Derya İlkay Abdikoğlu)
  • Possible Impacts of Voluntary Carbon Market Revenues on Foreign Exchange Earnings in Turkey within the Context of Carbon Footprint (Fatma Nur Yorgancilar / Ayberk Nuri Berkman / Haldun Soydal)
  • The Level of Information Technologies in Logistics Sector (Güneş Açelya Sipahi / Didem Tezsürücü / Kamil Bircan)
  • The Role of Financial Ratios on Evaluation of Stock Values: An Application in Bist (Alper Veli Cam / Busra Tosunoglu / Enes Gurtay)
  • An Econometric Analysis of Consumer Preferences of Red Meat Consumption: Case of Tekirdag, Turkey (Gokhan Unakitan / Dilsat Unakitan / Gozde Meco)
  • Art Studies
  • The Perception of Women in Early Republican Caricatures: The Case of the Zümrüd-ü Anka Magazine (1923–1925) (Meltem Acarlı / Mehmet Kaya)
  • The Role of Non-verbal Communication to Develop Good Behaviour in the Music Class (Meglena Apostolova)
  • A Review Concerning the Impact of Vassily Kandinsky on Applied Education of Art Basics of Today (Tolga Şenol)
  • The Rock Reliefs of Antiquity of the Burdur Region (Babür Mehmet Akarsu)
  • The Voice of the Angry Streets: Third Cinema as an Example of Memoria Del Saqueo – Memory of the Plunder (Özlem Arda)
  • Evaluation of Problems for Students with Low-Motivation in Piano Training (Zafer Tural)
  • From the Historical Kipchak Turkic to the Today’s Karaim Language: A Comparison in Terms of the Grammatical Cases (Hüseyin Durgut)
  • Translating Subtitles: The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey (Pelin Şulha)
  • Remnants of Sumerian in Modern Languages (Gürkan Turhan)
  • Student Opinions on the Use of Poetry in Social Studies (Gülbeyaz Ünlüer)

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Foreword

The book ‘Research on Humanities and Social Sciences’ gives a comprehensive and multiple perspective to the fields of communication, social sciences and art studies. Academic teaching staff, researchers, teachers, social workers, politicians, students and all other related persons will get significant benefits from constructional knowledge to experiemental applications from this book. The book is classified into three chapters and each chapter provides different perspectives and case studies through several papers in order to make more clear and understandable the theory and practices.

The first chapter is dedicated to Communication. Fusun Alver’s study of Popular Culture Between Integration and Resistance in the Perspective of Cultural Studies focusses on different fields of research on different continents and in different countries and can be traced back to the field expressed as critical theory in the past. The paper written by Ali Murat Vural presents the issue of The Perception of Turkey and the World among the Business Community Professionals. The author examines the advancement and spread of communication technologies from a sample of 1200 respondents working in 10 different sectors in Turkey. The paper the role of ‘motifs’ in a digital storytelling strategy aiming to didactic remediation The Role of “motifs” in a Digital Storytelling Strategy Aiming to Didactic Remediation, written by Christian Ruggiero, presents children aged three to six, with the goal of renewing teaching and learning models in an educational context. Dinçer Atli’s paper focuses on Business Models for Social Media: The Example of Facebook. The author argues that social media has gained greater significance as it received more attention from different stakeholders although the population of social media users change transiently, it is obvious that millions of people around the world are using social media. Suat Sonmez underlines the Security in Cyber Age. He states that the digital age with its all aspects has begun to overwhelm our life. There is no escape from this phenomenon. The paper on Prestige of an Online Newspaper: The Decision of Future Journalists by Yıldıray Keskin and Ahmet Faruk Çeçen argues on the potential loss of prestige of the news sites in the eyes of students and if there is any repercussion of the event on students’ willingness to work as a professional in these sites. Another research paper was written by Sırma Oya Tekvar on Gender Stereotypes Via Anthropomorphology: A Semiological Analysis of Printed Advertisements. The author tries to analyse anthromorphology and gender stereotypes in printed advertisements by the method of semiology, a science that seeks not the open, clear meaning of or an image, but the meaning which lies beneath it. Selda ← 9 | 10 → Uca Ozer’s study of Using Social Media in City Marketing: A Content Analysis of Hashtags for Istanbul in Instagram attempts to analyse hashtags for Istanbul on Instagram, which is one of the most important social media channels, and to determine elements that can be used effectively in city marketing.

The second chapter contains papers in Social Sciences. The paper on The Comparison of Language and Literature Teaching in Turkey and Finland by Şenel Gerçek and Hülya Çevirme argues that similarities and differences between two countries through qualitative research methods. Another research paper was written by Sadet Altay and Nejat İra on Special Training in the First Years of the Republic: The School of the Deaf, the Dumb and the Blind in Izmir (1923–1938). The papers give the development of special education through historical perspective. A further study of Osman Ferda Beytekin, Pınar Alkan and Tugce Nur Kalender argues Metaphors of School Administrators Related to Technological Leadership. The school administrators indicate five categories of technological metaphors as visionary leader, transformational leader, systematic development, reflective practice and learning culture. Rezzan Ayhan Türkbay examines Sukru Saracoglu and His Economic Policies in Early Republic Period Sukru Saracoglu and his Economic Policies in Early Republic Period in her paper. Sukru Saracoglu was one of important figures in early Turkish Republic history. Here served as education finance, finance minister, justice minister and forign affairs minister during his political life. Tuğçe Üner underlines the issue of Consumer Ethnocentrism through a comparative field research between Gazi Unıversity and Abant Izzet Baysal University. The paper evaluates the results of the research on the concept of Consumer Ethnocentrism on a different sample and conforming dimension studies. Isil Usta draws attention upon the issue of The Effect of Demographic Characteristics on Perception of Nepotism: A Study on Academicians. The notion of nepotism has been explained. Afterwards, the findings and results of the questionnaire implemented on academicians have been revealed. Fuat Yilmaz and Derya Ilkay Abdikoglu’s study of Econometric Analysis of the Production and Price of Grapes in Turkey discuss of grape production as a raisin, wine, canned, and grape juice in terms of years. Fatma Nur Yorgancilar, Ayberk Nuri Berkman and Haldun Soydal present the paper of Possible Impacts of Voluntary Carbon Market Revenues on Foreign Exchange Earnings in Turkey within the Context of Carbon Footprint. The study in which policy recommendations are made for reducing the carbon footprint discusses the impacts of spreading carbon trade in Turkey on macroeconomic variables, including foreign exchange earnings in particular. Gunes Acelya Sipahi, Didem Tezsurucu and Kamil Bircan, with their paper entitled The Level of Information Technologies in Logistics Sector, try to articulate how to capture ← 10 | 11 → a company’s competitive advantage for managers in the rapidly changing and uncertain business environments. Alper Veli Cam, Busra Tosunoglu and Enes Gurtay underline The Role of Financial Ratios on Evaluation of Stock Values: An Application in Bist. The objective of this study is to determine the relationship between the financial ratios of companies and stock values. Gokhan Unakitan, Dilsat Unakitan and Gozde Meco’s paper present an Econometric Analysis of Consumer Preferences of Red Meat Consumption: Case of Tekirdag, Turkey. The authors state that Phytonutrients can meet daily human protein requirements but it does not mean the whole nutrient requirements are met, so phytonutrients are poor in exogenous-amino acids.

The last chapter deals with Art Studies. Meltem Acarlı and Mehmet Kaya’s paper examine The Perception of Women in Early Republican Caricatures: The Case of the Zümrüd-ü Anka Magazine (1923–1925). The authors argue that caricature is the art of portraying all manners of the human condition with exaggerated drawings, a sharp sense of humour, sometimes to lead the reader into laughter but other times to critical thought, combining both drawing and literature and mostly consisting of content that is contrary to the situation of current affairs. The research paper The Role of Non-verbal Communication to Develop Good Behaviour in the Music Class by Meglena Apostolova examines a big challenge for the teacher with regard to discipline and behaviour matters. Tolga Şenol shares A Review Concerning the Impact of Vassily Kandinsky on Applied Education of Art Basics of Today. The author scrutinize the relations of geometrical elements with plane and with each other are being utilised in today’s art education. Babür Mehmet Akarsu argues The Rock Reliefs of Antiquity of the Burdur Region. It was stated that this region was inside of the borders of the Arzawa Kingdom in the 2nd millennium BC. Another research paper was written by Özlem Arda in The Voice of the Angry Streets: Third Cinema as an Example of ‘Memoria Del Saqueo – Memory of the Plunder’. In this study, recent films that have been produced based on the Third Cinema concept are discussed. Third cinema deals with social realities and fulfills a social function by portraying the problems in the life of a society and transfering them through visual language an awareness of the social problems and those who bear responsibility for them. Zafer Tural underlines the issue of Evaluation of Problems for Students with Low-Motivation in Piano Training. In this research, motivation levels and the problems that students who study at Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Education, Fine Arts Education Department, Music Teacher Education have in getting used to piano instrument are analysed. Huseyin Durgut’s paper attempts to analyse the language issue From the Historical Kipchak Turkic to the Today’s Karaim Language: A Comparison in Terms of the Grammatical ← 11 | 12 → Cases. He examines the relationship of the modern Karaim language and historical Kipchak Turkic has been pointed out by some studies. Pelin Şulha’s paper tries to examine Translating Subtitles: The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey. The author states that the source text in subtitling is mostly an oral communication product combining different channels and codes where non-verbal signs; such as, body language and gestures of the film characters are as important as the language used despite the latter being always the primary concern. The paper Remnants of Sumerian in Modern Languages written by Gürkan Turhan, focuses on very few widely used words that are still valid in contemporary languages (such as English and Turkish) and in ancient languages (such as Etruscan, Latin, Greek), some of which are still rather “intact” both orthographically and semantically and related concepts. Gülbeyaz Ünlüer underlines Student Opinions on the Use of Poetry in Social Studies. The author states that in today’s educational approach, the effectiveness of learning and teaching activities and the realisation of educational targets are only possible with applicable and rightly selected methods.

Hasan Arslan

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Communication

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Füsun Alver

Popular Culture Between Integration and Resistance in the Perspective of Cultural Studies

1. Introduction

Cultural Studies focuses on different fields of research on different continents and in different countries and can be traced back to the field expressed as critical theory in the past in the US and England (Winter, 2009, p. 67). In the tradition of English Cultural Studies, the concept of politics denotes the constellation of conflicts and power and aims at recognising power symmetries, cultural identities, lifestyles, and differences. For this reason, it shifts its point of focus from politics to social and cultural fields; such as, class, race, sect, gender, elderlines and the politics of lifestyles, fields of consumption, and family types. English Cultural Studies tends towards correlating theory with politics, coding with decoding, cultural identity, gender, and racism with media (Hall, 2002; 1998). American Cultural Studies (Fiske, 1997; Grossberg, 1999a; 1999b; 1999c; Kellner, 2005) tends towards the culture of visual and audio media as the sign systems of popular culture and the bearer of collective ideology. In this context, it has been determined that studies focusing on culture, sexuality, and media phenomena are being conducted with an explicit methodology within the scope of human sciences that are becoming more and more important in the tradition of Anglo-Saxon Cultural Studies. In Cultural Studies conducted in German-speaking countries, the studies on communication science, media studies (Winter, 1999), and reception context (Göttlich & Winter, 1999), gender research (Klaus, 2004), and the sociology of culture (Winter, 2006) are becoming important.

The studies of Grossberg (2000; 1999a; 1999b; 1999c), which bring English Cultural Studies into American Cultural Studies and contribute to its development, are essential in the tradition of Cultural Studies research. Analysis of popular culture and the determination of the conditions of the subject’s ability of action have a crucial role in the studies of Grossberg. Within this framework, the following research questions are set forth: What are the basic identifications of Grossberg regarding the discipline of Cultural Studies? Has a theory design regarding popular culture been developed within the tradition of Cultural Studies research? What are the conditions of the action ability of a media receiver in Grossberg’s ← 15 | 16 → approach? Are there any limits to the resistance potential of the receiver? Does reception mean changing the conditions of living? What is the role of cultural, economic, and political power structures in this process? Using the argumentation method explaining how to benefit from the arguments that are statements or series of statements and conclusions developed to answer the questions set forth has been considered appropriate.

2. Lawrance Grossberg: Complication of Reception Practice and the Power Structures Restricting Action Competence

Cultural Studies does not have a closed design of theory and method and contains several characteristics; such as thematic multifacetedness and methodological uncertainty. In this section, examining Grossberg’s flexibility design in Cultural Studies, contextuality of power, popular culture, and statements regarding action ability of the subject before popular culture would be significant.

2.1. Cultural Studies as Theoretical Flexibility, Thematic Multifacetedness, and Not-Methodological-ness

Knowledge and meaning oriented Cultural Studies rooted in Anglo-Saxon geography is not grounded in an absolute theory but on the contrary harmonises hypotheses and tools with the purpose of research and correlates those to research objects. Cultural Studies does not have a closed theoretical structure. A theory or a specific theoretical position never dominates Cultural Studies (Grossberg, 1999c, p. 45; 1992, p. 29). Grossberg (1999b, p. 215f.) argues that Cultural Studies endeavours to develop strategic theory to enable the application of better political strategies, obtain required knowledge, and redesign the context.

Cultural Studies operating beyond disciplines without a theoretical design, method, and assessment method makes use of or discovers the tools of other scientific disciplines. Clarity, textuality, and heterogeneity are essential for research direction. The context of consciousness and difference reception conditions of various scientific disciplines brings about the comprehension of Cultural Studies itself as a political project and intellectual praxis. In this perspective, knowledge production is understood as a theory, a strategy and a tool to shift from context to concrete state and to benefit from that (Lutter & Reisenleitner, 2008, p. 14–15). In this context Cultural Studies is not a School that determines methodological and theoretical paradigms. Cultural Studies should always be comprehended flexibly and openly. Its own methods, position, purposes, and acceptances should be developed regularly (Kellner, 2005, p. 12f.). Cultural Studies, as an interdisciplinary ← 16 | 17 → and transdisciplinary project, has its roots in social and cultural scientific approaches, however it has distanced itself from history, sociology, literature, and traditional science of culture research since its emergence. Thus, Cultural Studies is accepted as a basic anti-disciplinary and anti-methodological program.

2.2. Action Competence as a Category of Resistance or the Impossibility of Changing Living Conditions by Reception

As a lifestyle located historically and contextually, cultural understanding raised interest in studies of popular culture and subculture. The distinction between high culture and popular culture is the expression of social power relations. In this context, the hierarchical structure of the concepts of high culture, daily culture, or popular culture is not foreseen. Specific culture is tended towards in different social, ethnic, age, and gender contexts. Grossberg (1999b, p. 223–224) thinks that popular culture does not set forth a stable repertory and is defined as formal schematically; it is aesthetic in contrast to high culture, sociological since it is the culture of the people, and political as a people’s culture containing objections.

Cultural Studies places the concepts of entertainment and pleasure within its basic research subjects in the production of daily culture. As well, it creates an effective media receptor by locating the concept of entertainment in opposition to the concept of ideology and comprehending the experience of entertainment as a resistance to the dominant ideology. This way, by moving further from the Frankfurt School’s passive and injudicious consumer design, the design of a receptor can effectively benefit from the media in daily life and can perform multiple reading of media texts gains importance (Alver, 2012, p. 263). Grossberg (1999a, p. 13f.; 1992, p. 125–126) who thinks that the texts and text passages with concrete meanings for humans to some extent do not necessarily contain the same meaning, states that the meaning attributed to the text by humans should be ignored; denying the claimant subjectivity designs of the body that lay the ground in an ontological field or in alternative approaches, he suggests effective individuality instead of this. This effective individuality is determined by social and historical factors. However, the path of the individual in daily life is not determined. The individual draws a new road map for himself/herself and looks for different ways and a space that belongs to him/her.

While analysing the popular culture of our age such as rock music and youth culture, Grossberg (2000; 1999b) adopts a social philosophical perspective and conducts his analysis in correlation with the communicative processes. Grossberg perceiving popular culture from the system of rock music, examines material context and the organisation principles of practice that find their meaning in ← 17 | 18 → opposite concepts such as boring/entertaining or significant/not significant. He proposes multifaceted problems in his rock music analyses, focuses on forms and impacts regarding popular politics that contain resistance within, then endeavours to formulate the theses regarding action opportunities, and improving human competency in daily life.

Grossberg (1994, p. 23) investigates the media consumption competency of individuals in daily life. Grossberg (1994, p. 23), especially, discusses the need and opportunities to empower the socially weak ones and the ones under oppression as well as suggests increasing the resistance potential, which means working on and the reinterpretation of dominant definitions and representations. Specific forms of culture are mingled with the organisation and implementation of specific forms of power and comprise a part of it. He does not comprehend power as a form of absolute sovereignty but, contrarily, analyses it as the unequal relations of power due to the benefits of specific societal groups. However, power cannot always and everywhere get what it wants because the possibility of changing the structure and organisation of power emerges.

3. Conclusion

Grossberg (2000, p. 57), who aims at pointing out the importance of Cultural Studies as an analytical project within the sciences of society and communication, criticises power and provides a political analysis of power relations and social struggles. He examines how his and the world’s understanding are determined by power structures and analyses how power forms appear and the affectability of those. He states that popular culture plays an important role in this process. Grossberg comprehends popular culture as the dual movement of integration and resistance, and by correlating the dual movement with each other, he proposes a dynamic model that renders the circulation of popular practices causal (Winter, 1999, p. 45). Grossberg (2000, p. 57f.) aims at revealing the section points of popular culture, popular politics, systematic structures, and the constellation of political and economic power. Grossberg (2000, p. 57f) suggests supporting the ones in weak condition in order to construct the constellation with a better understanding, change the status quo, and ameliorate the conditions of living.

Within this framework, Grossberg’s (2000; 1999c) perspective that emphasises the determinative power of economy and politics should be developed and Cultural Studies, focusing on differences and inequalities, should also gravitate towards the analysis of economic relations that are the basis of social inequalities. Struggling with economic unemployment should seek different methods than the struggle regarding cultural discrimination and restriction. Economic unemployment requires ← 18 | 19 → the radical transformation of production, distribution, and sharing in national and international areas. Removing the cultural inequalities formally by emphasising cultural differences is not sufficient for the removal of economic-based structural inequalities. Action competencies of individuals are restricted in the field of media before economic structure and globalisation. The structure of media organisations, monopolies emerging in media market, unequal opportunities of media users in media access, and problems regarding the quality of content cannot be isolated from the international and national economic structure. For this reason, when analysing the competency of resistance and action, rather than formal equality, the problems regarding those should also be formulated and included within the scope of the research.

References

Biographical notes

Hasan Arslan (Volume editor) Mehmet Ali Içbay (Volume editor) Christian Ruggiero (Volume editor)

Hasan Arslan is Professor of Education at Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Turkey. His research interests include educational administration, student leadership, multicultural education, and higher education policy. Mehmet Ali İçbay is Professor of Education at Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Turkey. His current research focuses on the ethnomethodological account of teaching and learning in the classroom. Christian Ruggiero is an Associate Professor at the Department of Communication and Social Research at Sapenza University in Rome.

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Title: Research on Humanities and Social Sciences