Table Of Contents
- About the author(s)/editor(s)
- About the book
- Advance Praise for Leadership, Equity, and Social Justice in American Higher Education
- This eBook can be cited
- Introduction (C. P. Gause)
- Works Cited
- Part One: The Context of Leadership
- Chapter 1: Leadership, Equity, and Social Justice in American Higher Education: Are We Making Progress? (C. P. Gause)
- Personal Reflection
- Doing Diversity Work in Higher Education
- Conclusion—Have We Made Enough Progress?
- Works Cited
- Chapter 2: U.S. Public Higher Education in Peril: The Disastrous Impacts of Corporatization (John P. Elia)
- Corporatization and Neoliberalism: Definitions and Context
- A Brief Historical Sketch of Corporatization and Neoliberalism in Public U.S. Higher Education
- Manifestations of Corporatization and Neoliberalism
- Grant Funding
- Overreliance on Part-Time, Contingent Faculty
- Corporatization of Higher Education Administrators
- Spiraling Cost of Tuition and Student Loans
- Pedagogy and Learning
- Corporate Entities on Campuses
- Development Professionals
- Corporate Sponsorships
- Corporate Physical Plant
- Intensification of Corporate Life in the Academy
- Ill Health of Democracy in U.S. Public Higher Education
- The Costs of Corporatized Public Higher Education to Individual and Community/Public Health
- Work Cited
- Chapter 3: Title IX: Turning Back the Clock on Free Speech and Due Process (Hans F. Bader)
- Work Cited
- Chapter 4: Funding Cuts in Higher Education Shift Priorities Away from Equity, Diversity, & Inclusivity: A Case Study (Susan Dennison / C. P. Gause)
- Initial Motivation to Take some Bold Steps
- Subcommittee on Recruitment and Retention of Ethnic Minority Faculty
- Data Surfaced from Consultant on Diversity & Faculty Development
- Deans Council Subcommittee Recommendations
- The Inclusive Community Initiative
- University Endorsed Definition of an Inclusive Community
- Campus Climate Assessment
- Summary of Campus Unity Council 2008 Survey Data
- Recommendations from Campus Unity Council 2008 Survey
- Plan to Coordinate & Promote University Events related to Diversity & Inclusion
- Position for a Director of Equity & Inclusion
- Identify Ways This University Can Be More Inclusive
- How Inclusive Is the UNCG Community from Your Perspective?
- What Are Barriers to Making UNCG a More Inclusive Community?
- What Are Your Suggestions for Making UNCG a More Inclusive Community?
- Third Year of Initiative
- No Changes in Last Three Years
- Value of Diversity & Inclusion
- Work Cited
- Chapter 5: Re-conceptualizing Higher Education Administration for the 21st Century: Servant Educational Leadership and Knowledge for Public Good in a “Post-racial” Era (Sabrina N. Ross)
- Social Justice Educational Leadership
- Servant Leadership Theory
- Putting it all Together: Servant Educational Leadership, Faculty of Color, and Knowledge for Public Good in Predominantly White Institutions of Higher Education
- Theme 1: Resistance from Students and Other Faculty
- Theme 2: Work Overload and/or Emotional Exhaustion
- Work Cited
- Chapter 6: Good for Whom? The Shifting Role of Higher Education (Jillian Volpe White / Kathy L. Guthrie)
- Defining Public Good in Higher Education
- Historical Context of Public Good in Education
- Arguments in Favor of the “New” Public Good
- Service and the Public Good
- Work Cited
- Chapter 7: Toward the Global Public Good: A Dialectical Vision for Higher Education (Angelo Letizia)
- A Brief History
- Towards a New Vision of the Global Public Good
- Work Cited
- Chapter 8: Private For-Profit Universities: Inflating Academic Degrees and Hurting the Economy? (Andrea S. Dauber / Kim Hunt)
- Transnational Markets and Higher Education
- For-Profit versus Non-Profit: Quantitative and Qualitative Aspects in Comparison
- Controversies about Funding of Higher Education Institutions and Resource Allocation
- Quality of Education
- Higher Education and Structural Aspects of the U.S. Labor Market
- International Perspective
- Discussion and Conclusion
- Work Cited
- Chapter 9: Post-Racial Higher Ed.: Implications of Mergers between HBCUs and PWIs (Nia I. Cantey / Cara Robinson / Michael Harris)
- Historical Mergers
- Mergers & the 21st Century
- Debating the Modern HBCU
- University of New Orleans and Southern University (New Orleans)
- North Carolina
- Work Cited
- Chapter 10: Managing Anger and Mistrust in the Academy: Five Steps for Engagement (Paul Watkins)
- Step One: Demonstrate Confidence
- Step Two: Establish Ground Rules
- Step Three: Keep Focused
- Step Four: Ask Questions
- Step Five: Buy a Little Time
- Work Cited
- Chapter 11: Creating Emotionally Intelligent Global Leaders (Kathy L. Guthrie / Tessly A. Dieguez)
- Emotional and Cultural Intelligence
- Criticisms of Emotional Intelligence
- Leadership versus Management
- Emotional Intelligence Competencies
- Organizational Awareness
- Emotional Intelligence Competencies and Functioning in Other Cultures
- Work Cited
- Chapter 12: Adjunct Faculty as Commodities (Christopher Cumo)
- An Adjunct Dies
- Confessions of a Former Adjunct
- The Numbers
- The Dimensions of the Problem
- Are There Any Solutions?
- Work Cited
- Chapter 13: The Unintended Consequences of New Residence Hall Construction: Issues of Access and Student Success (Elizabeth C. Jodoin / Christopher Gregory)
- The Impact of Residing On-Campus
- Student Facility Preferences
- Issues of Student Access
- Implications for Practice
- Work Cited
- Part Two: Equity and Access
- Chapter 14: The Perspectives of International Students at Southern River University: A Predominantly White Institution (PWI) in the Midwest (Talha Siddiqi / C. P. Gause)
- International Students in the United States
- The Setting
- Results—“Off the Record”
- Conclusions and Recommendations
- Work Cited
- Chapter 15: Treading Treacherous Waters: A Conversation with Women Faculty of Color on Teaching Race (Donna Marie Peters / Sonja Peterson-Lewis / Rickie Sanders / Elizabeth L. Sweet / Karen M. Turner / Kimmika Williams-Witherspoon)
- Background and Context
- The Accord Research Group
- History of “R” Designated Courses at Temple University
- How have you changed your teaching strategies as a result of student reactions? Or have you; if so, how?
- With the extra commitment of time you put into your race content courses, how have they impacted your teaching and career?
- How has teaching race impacted your scholarship?
- “Do you have specific goals for when you teach or discuss race in your classes?”
- Conclusion-Lessons Learned and Proposals for Future Work
- Work Cited
- Chapter 16: Being Queer in the Classroom: Understanding and Applying Queer Theories (Jay Poole)
- Work Cited
- Chapter 17: The New Transnormativity? Reading Mainstream Representations of Caitlyn Jenner in the University Classroom (Gust A. Yep / Sage E. Russo / Rebecca N. Gigi)
- Caitlyn Jenner and the Social and Cultural Context of Trans Visibility
- Theoretical and Pedagogical Orientation
- Unpacking U.S. Mainstream Representations of Caitlyn Jenner
- “It’s Always About What’s ‘Wrong’”: Pathologization of Trans Experiences
- “It’s All About the Body”: Obsession with the Body
- “It Always Comes Back to Two Genders”: Reification of the Gender Binary
- The New Transnormativity?
- Summary and Implications
- Work Cited
- Chapter 18: The Double-Edged Sword: Fighting for Equity and Professional Advancement in Higher Education (Tara Jabbaar-Gyambrah / Seneca Vaught)
- Future Implications and Solutions
- Work Cited
- Chapter 19: Identifying and Coping with Academe’s Glass Ceiling: A Critical Analysis (Brenda L. H. Marina)
- The Glass Ceiling
- The State Level Glass Ceiling
- The Business Sector Glass Ceiling
- The Education Administration (K-12) Glass Ceiling
- The Higher Education Administration Glass Ceiling
- Deeper Roots: The Syndromes
- The Professional Victim Syndrome
- The Marilyn Munster Syndrome
- Concluding Thoughts
- Work Cited
- Chapter 20: African American Males in a Living Learning Community: Their Experiences at an HBCU (P. Brandon Johnson)
- African American Male LLC
- Research Locations
- Data Sources and Collection
- Data Analysis
- Institutional Reports
- Experiences of First-Year African American Males
- Behavior Change Experiences
- Interpersonal Connectivity Experiences
- LLC Privilege Experiences
- Family Affiliation Experiences
- Pre-entry Characteristics and Perceived First-Year Experiences
- Perceived Academic Performance
- Average Performing Students
- Mid-Range Performing Students
- High Performing Students
- Perceived Benefits of LLC Participation.
- LLC Participation and Academic Integration
- Informing the Student
- Using Academic Support Services
- Coordinator Access\
- LLC Participation and Social Integration
- Creating a Social Network
- Event Attendance
- LLC Participation and Retention
- Life without the LLC
- LLC Student Retention
- Work Cited
- Chapter 21: Black Masculinity & Surveillance: Gender and Racial Performances in K-12 and University Contexts (Dalia Rodriguez / Mary Cannito-Coville / Tremayne S. Robertson)
- Literature Review
- Critical Race Theory, Black Feminist Thought & Black Masculinity Studies
- Method & Data Analysis
- High School Context
- University Context
- Commitment to Family
- Commitment to Community
- Succeeding Academically: Self Reliance and Self Assurance
- Work Cited
- Chapter 22: You Can’t Piss down My Back and Tell Me It’s Raining (James H. Campbell / Brent E. Johnson)
- Critical Race Theory
- Critical Race Theory and Sport
- Work Cited
- Chapter 23: Mother to Son: The Role of Cultural and Social Capital in African American Intergenerational Success (Jewell E. Cooper / Joseph N. Cooper)
- Story of an African American Mother
- Autoethnographic Research
- Cultural and Social Reproduction Theory
- An African American Mother’s Perspectives on Intergenerational Success
- Setting the Stage—Preparation for Teaching and Mothering
- Conscious Preparation for Teaching—Unconscious Preparation for Mentoring
- We Are All In School Now—Co-Educational Journeys
- Preparing to Let My Gifts Go—The Manifestation of Intergenerational Success
- An African American Son’s Perspectives on Intergenerational Success
- Plant the Seeds and They Will Grow—Early Childhood Educational Experiences
- It Takes a Village to Raise a Child—Community Support in Child-Rearing
- A Product of My Environment—Involvement in Academic Enrichment Activities
- Work Cited
- Chapter 24: Hulking Out: White Males’ Response to Bullying, Humiliation, Rejection, Isolation and Perceived Injustice in an Academic Setting (Steven Randolph Cureton)
- The Beast: Lethal Violence
- Core Principles of Social Acceptance, Compensatory Reaction and Murder
- Nature and Extent of Targeted Violence, Mass Murder and Rampage Shootings
- Race and Killing Moods
- Note on Mental Illness
- Jack Katz’s Theory of Righteous Slaughter
- Educational Institutions Become the Stage for the Grand Finale
- Conclusion: Safety Checks and Balances
- Research Note: Without Sanctuary or Leisure, Moving in on Soft Targets
- Work Cited
- Part Three: Critical Pedagogy and Social Justice
- Chapter 25: Social Justice Education in Higher Education (Laura Finley / Kelly Concannon)
- Definitions of Social Justice and Progressive Pedagogy
- Social Justice Education in the College Classroom
- Resisting “Power Over” Pedagogies
- The Importance of Dialogue
- Attention to Sociological Roots of Inequalities
- Sharing Our Activism and Inviting Participation
- Social Justice Education Outside the Classroom
- Challenges in Enacting Social Justice Education in Higher Education
- Pitfalls of Service Learning Projects
- Summary of Best Practices for Social Justice Education in Higher Education
- Work Cited
- Chapter 26: The Audacity of Humanity: Searching for Hope, Longing for Peace (Ty-Ron M. O. Douglas)
- Work Cited
- Chapter 27: On Becoming: Exploring Self, Equity in Education and the Poetry of Critical Thinking (Lalenja Harrington)
- The Power of the Word
- Discovering Self, My Position
- Understanding impact of racism. privilege, and oppression
- Reflections of Resistance
- Sharing the Word
- A Community of Unsuspecting Poets
- The Process
- Work Cited
- Chapter 28: Follow the Yellow Brick Road: Uncovering the Significant Learning Experiences in Southern Colored Schools (Toby S. Jenkins)
- Introduction: Follow the Yellow Brick Road
- Beyond Pathology: The Witch versus the Wizard
- Remembering Colored Schools: A Visit to Emerald City
- The Penn School
- The Rosenwald Fund
- Off to See the Wizard: Significant Learning and Culture in Educational Practice
- Documenting Folk’s Tales: Storytellers as the Keepers of the Culture
- Telling Our Stories
- Conclusion: “You’ve Always Had the Power My Dear. You Had it All Along”
- Work Cited
- Chapter 29: The Queer Poetics of Social Justice: Literacy, Affect(ion), and the Critical Pedagogical Imperative (Robert E. Randolph, Jr.)
- The Poet’s Soul: An Interlude
- Words that Negotiate Violence
- My Own Self-Making: An Interlude
- When Word “Nigger” Is Implied yet Unspoken: An Interlude
- Educators as Poets as Social Justice Advocates
- Sing To Me: An Interlude
- My Deeply Female and Spiritual Plane: A Postlude
- Work Cited
- Chapter 30: Politics of Leading (Melissa A. Odegard-Koester)
- Contextualization of Leadership
- Personal History
- An Influential Mentor
- Being a Counselor
- An Emerging Educator
- Current Climate
- Student Perspectives on Leadership
- Work Cited
- Chapter 31: Learning and Leadership in Higher Education: The Role of Service-Learning (Laura Finley / Victor Romano / Glenn A. Bowen / Celeste Fraser Delgado)
- Benefits of Service-Learning
- Service Learning: Students’ Participation
- Service Learning: Creating Agents of Social Change
- Redirecting Drive-By Service-Learning
- College Brides Walk
- Carnival Arts
- Work Cited
- Chapter 32: Bridging the Divide: Improving Teacher-Student Relations, Teacher Evaluations, and Retention Levels of African American and Minority Faculty (Pearlie Strother-Adams)
- Review of the Literature
- Background: Defining and Experiencing Race in the Work Environment
- More Background: Stories of Student Resistance in a Culture of Fear
- Theoretical Frame: African Americans and Minorities as “Other”
- Stereotypes and Myths Mirrored in Classroom and Work Environments
- Devaluing the Work and Achievements of the “Other”
- Student-Teacher Evaluations and the Invisible “Other”
- Appropriation Not Appreciation of the “Other”
- Winning Strategy: Teacher-Student Conferences and Faculty Peer Mentoring
- Struggle and Disappointment Yields Innovative Strategic Revelation
- Overcoming Invisibility: Drawing upon Pain and Experiences
- Emergence of Teacher-Student Conferences in Friendly, Attractive Atmosphere
- Conclusion: Teacher-Student Conferences Introduced During Faculty-Peer Mentoring
- Work Cited
- Chapter 33: That’s The Way I See It: Exploring Collaborative Writing and Critical Ethnographic Research with College Students with Intellectual Disabilities (Lalenja Harrington / Remington Brown)
- Transformative Happenings
- College Matters
- Programming for Students with Intellectual Disabilities
- Theory and Method
- Collaborative Process
- Remington’s Positionality
- Lalenja’s Positionality
- “Our” Positionality
- Whose Truth Do We Seek?
- The Process of Seeking
- A Few Words on Poetic Transcription/Analysis
- Recommendations for Future Post-critical Ethnographic Studies
- That’s the Way We See It
- Work Cited
- Chapter 34: Intellectual Property Rights in the Online Learning Era (Sarah J. Dhilla)
- The Issue
- Brief History
- Current Landscape
- Faculty Claims
- Faculty Concerns
- Administrators’ Claims
- Faculty Concerns
- Internal Institutional Considerations
- Different Models of Ownership
- Different Modes of Implementing Ownership
- Assigning Ownership
- Considerations and Implications
- Work Cited
- Chapter 35: “Othering” of English Language Learners in Higher Education: Redefining Literacy and Identity in the Digital Age (John J. Lee)
- The Majority-Minority Nation
- ELLs in Higher Education
- “Othering” of ELLs
- Beyond Language
- Digital Literacy
- Digital Identity
- ELLs in Digital Space
- Work Cited
- Chapter 36: Fresh Prince in a Different World (Brian W. Collier Jr.)
- “No Brotha’ Left Behind”
- Navigating and Understanding a World so Different than the Norm
- The Impact of Historically Black Colleges and Universities
- Listen to Me Theorize
- HBCU (Re) presentation through the Lens of Cultural Studies
- Validating the HBCU and African Male Identity
- Conclusion: We Must Love Our Past
- Work Cited
- Series index
I would like to thank Christie Wormington for her support in organizing this reader. Talha Siddiqi for his invaluable feedback and contributions and Muna Pokharel for her gift of transcription. I am incredibly grateful to the contributors for their patience, commitment, and expertise; without them, this volume would not exist. Many thanks to the team at Peter Lang. I appreciate the opportunity to work with you in bringing this reader to fruition.
NEVER BEFORE HAS LEADERSHIP, EQUITY, AND SOCIAL JUSTICE been more important and/or critical to the mission of public universities and institutions of higher education. The 21st century has ushered in a period of instantaneous feedback, to include live newsfeeds, reviews of goods and services, and online streaming of events, as well as experiences. Anyone with a smartphone has access to millions of individuals to report their affirmation and/or dissatisfaction with individuals, products or service. Colleges and universities have not been immune to this current climate. In fact, today’s students—“The Millennials” are the force behind the current state of our society. They are the largest population of “knowledge producers” and “knowledge consumers,” in the United States.
The structure of higher education in the United States is derived from the German research university and the British undergraduate college. The system is influenced by several factors to include capitalism and the rationality of market competition and currently a commitment to social mobility, democracy, and equal opportunity. The latter did not come about until well into the 20th century. Historically, higher education was for the “elites.” White wealthy land-owners who could send their young men to college, “for a proper education.” As the United States went through social and economic change; those who were historically excluded from institutions of higher education were able to participate in the enterprise as it became a “gateway” to the middle class. This is no longer the case. The American higher education system has undergone significant change over the past 5 years.
The political disturbances and re-articulation of what it means to be a member of the White establishment in today’s America is evidenced by the multiple media outlets, “talking heads,” and “political pundits” who utilize the airwaves to garner support for the days of old—no Black president, no illegal immigrants, no taxes on the wealthiest Americans, no racially balanced and/or mixed public schools, no Muslims or immigrants. Ultimately, no one getting ahead of the wealthy White power elite. As I re-think American democracy and the role of education in shaping this nation, diversity, equity, and social justice are all central to our history. Democracy is an enacted daily practice through which people ← xiii | xiv → interact and relate through personal, social, and professional routines with a primary focus on continuing the betterment of our humanity. Democracy does not seek to embrace hegemonic practices that maintain the status quo. It does not silence individuals and, at its core foundation, is the representation of difference in society. Putnam (1991) as cited in Gause (2008) stated “democracy is not just a form of social life among other workable forms of social life; it is the precondition for the full application of intelligence to the solution of social problems” (p. 145). It is valued collaboration from all walks of life that will improve a democracy truly based on unity. We must as a society and member of this global community move away from the dichotomies that exist when we think of diversity, equity, and social justice.
Since the Great Recession of 2007 we have witnessed dramatic cuts in state funding to public universities, a significant increase in student loan debt due to ever increasing tuition, challenges to academic freedom and tenure for faculty, issues regarding access and equity to higher education by undocumented students and those in poverty, and the corporatization of higher education. Issues regarding leadership and shared governance of institutions continue to play out in the media and technology continues to impact curriculum delivery. The democratic promise of the public university has been abandoned and emptied of meaning. Severe budget cuts, divisive politics and the cultural wars has forced universities to close their doors, to shift their admissions policies to limit access, and has help to develop an underclass workforce.
The purpose and aim of this volume is to “critique” the current state of American Higher Education through the lens of critical theory and critical pedagogy. This volume seeks to impact higher education preparation programs by filling the void in the literature with voices from the field. The contributing authors are a diverse array of scholars and practitioners who are committed to moral and shared leadership, equity and access, and social justice. For specific descriptions of the enclosed chapters, please consult the introductions that precede each section.
Gause, C. P. (2008). Integration matters: Navigating identity, culture and resistance. New York, NY: Peter Lang.
Putnam, H. (1991). A reconsideration of Dewey and democracy. In M. Brint & W. Weaver (Eds.), Pragmatism in law and society. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Leadership is a word that varies in meaning based upon the context in which it is used and or applied. It does connotes positional power and/or authority; however, it has moved beyond that framework. Leadership involves persuading individuals and/or or groups of individuals to pursue objectives held by the leader or shared by the leader and his or her followers. Leaders should not be thought of without the context of their appointment, position, system, and setting in which they preside. This is especially true for university leadership.
In the first chapter, C. P. Gause highlights the many challenges facing leaders of higher education institutions in the United States. He raises concerns for meeting those challenges and offers his personal and professional perspective of why leadership, equity, and social justice are so important to our democracy.
In the second chapter, John P. Elia critiques the corporatization of public higher education. He utilizes critical pedagogy and critical theory as theoretical anchors in defining corporatization and neoliberalism in the context of higher education. He concludes by “connecting the dots” and makes a case for how corporatization and neoliberalism have been detrimental to the health of institutions of higher education, as well as to the health of the individuals and communities in which they serve.
In the following chapter, Hans F. Bader asserts that “free speech” on college campuses regarding sexual issues has been undermined by Title IX, the federal law that prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in any federally funded education program or activity. He also asserts that federal officials have seized upon this statute to issue warning to colleges to restrict sexual expression, even when it does not constitute sexual harassment.
Susan Dennison and C. P. Gause present a case study regarding a medium-size public university in North Carolina that took bold and extensive steps to redefine itself as an inclusive, diverse, collaborative, responsive and welcoming learning community for all. They chronicle the journey and steps through this process and ultimately share how the majority of their work over a 5 year period was dismantled due to budget cuts.
Sabrina N. Ross asserts the importance of the continued pursuit of knowledge for public good (as opposed to knowledge for profit) in higher education is vital because such efforts act as counter-hegemonic forces to resist academic capitalism and destruction to principles of democracy and equity. She also asserts that faculty of color who teach for social justice have a long history of supporting knowledge for public good and that the emergence of a supposed “post-racial” era threatens to thwart these efforts.
Jillian Volpe White and Kathy L. Guthrie explore the evolving charter between higher education and the public good. Historically, institutions of higher education existed to promote and educated and democratized citizenry that is engaged in the community through socially responsible action. They discuss the impact of declining state support and how institutions are increasingly focused on the personal and economic gains.
Angelo Letizia asserts public higher education faces unprecedented challenges to its public nature in the form of reduced funding. Although public higher education can be inclusive, democratic and the producer of radical theories, he argues that public institutions of higher education are currently being stripped of its democratic and revolutionary potential.
Andrea S. Dauber and Kim Hunt believe that higher education in the United States is at risk of devaluation owing to the dramatic increase of for-profit universities. They argue without entrance requirements, these institutions have lower academic standards, and eventually release graduates into the workforce who compete with graduates from traditional universities with corresponding higher standards in a globalizing market.
Nia I. Cantey, Cara Robinson, and Michael Harris explore the language and discourse surrounding proposed mergers between historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominately white institutions (PWIs) in contrast with their historical counterparts. They also examine the ← 3 | 4 → implications of these proposed mergers for HBCU students, faculty, and the Black community in their continued struggle for social, political, social control, and economic equity.
Paul Watkins discusses how university executives can deal with the wrath of parents stung by the missteps of their young students. Confronted with the pressures of anger, anxiety, and emotion how can university registrars, deans, directors or student affairs deal effectively with anger? How can they make informed, ethical decisions and effectively resolve conflict under trying conditions? How can they balance privileged power with multi-racial and multi-cultural mistrust? Most importantly, how can they strengthen university-home relations to minimize the destructive influence that anger and mistrust bring to the university? He provides five strategies, associated with the negotiating process, offer some insight.
Kathy L. Guthrie and Tessly A. Diequez argue that when examining specific emotional intelligence competencies, most notably empathy, adaptability, and organizational awareness, can lead to international leadership effectiveness. They explore using emotional intelligence competencies to teach global leader efficacy, which is critical in the twenty-first century.
Christopher Cumo, through this essay, explores the “adjunct.” He argues the corporate university has simply applied lessons to academe, whereby part time faculties are as powerless as independent contract journalists. He highlights the many perils of this system. For now it suffices to say that part time faculty and the abuses that imperil them appear to be here to stay. He presents a personal narrative of Margaret Mary Vojtko from Duquesne University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Elizabeth C. Jodoin and Christopher Gregory highlight the complexities within the intersection of residence hall design and student facility preference with issues of student success and access. They believe exploring the complexities of residence hall design with student access and success may encourage institutional administrators and housing and residence life personnel to think more holistically regarding residence hall design.
The United States is more ideologically, philosophically, culturally, linguistically, racially, and ethnically diverse than she has been in any given point in her history. As we view higher education through today’s lens and/or the present moment. We would be led to believe that we are not making progress (Carlson & Gause, 2007). The many reports via social media that chronicles the civil unrest on today’s campuses and in the streets of many cities in our nations have many to believe that we are a nation that is still experiencing slavery, the violation of due process and citizen’s rights, as well as Marshall Law. If we were to believe the current 24-hour media news cycle, one would be left with this feeling of a nation that is currently under cultural and gender apartheid. The illusion of time is the context of this phenomena. This chapter highlights the many challenges facing leaders of higher education institutions in the United States. It raises concerns for meeting those challenges and offers my personal perspective of why leadership, equity, and social justice are so important to our democracy.
Leaders of today’s institutions of higher learning face many challenges. The cost of receiving and/or providing an education has increased significantly. Funding issues have implications for who has access. We know institutions of higher education must have an income base to continue their existence. With the increase of tuition and the decreasing funding in state dollars, many students are being priced out of higher education.
This has become a national concern, and it impacts most heavily on individuals of color, who tend to have fewer financial assets than their white counterparts.
There are growing concerns that students no longer need a college degree to be successful. This thinking has brought about great debate and investment into new ways of credentialing and teaching students. Free online courses have been developed. A “badge” and/or certification system has been launched to acknowledge acquired skills, and many individuals are seeking ways to experience learning through YouTube videos and mediated platforms. Retention and matriculation is an issue for most universities. The national 6-year graduation rate for first-time, full-time undergraduate students who began their pursuit of a bachelor’s degree at a 4-year degree-granting institution in fall 2008 was 60 percent. ← 5 | 6 → University leadership are also dealing with high incidents of “under-age” drinking and sexual assaults on college campus. Students are utilizing their collective voices and social media to impact university leadership. Student protests on college and university campuses across the United States over the past two years has resulted in the departure of many university presidents, chancellors, and executive leadership. Many faculty members on campuses across the U.S. are becoming active participants in social justice education and seek reform in the academy. It is not easy. It takes hard work.
In thinking about diversity, equity and social justice and writing this chapter, I must share my own personal reflection. I am a tenured full professor of color who holds a doctoral and other advanced degrees from Tier 1 research institutions. I currently serve as a department chair at a selective regional comprehensive university in the Midwest. My department consists of 12 full equivalent faculty and I happen to be the only person of color. I am also the only Black male in the College of Education. I was mentored by highly distinguished educational scholars from diverse ethnic and gendered backgrounds. I have ample experience in leading, teaching, researching, and evaluating an array of diverse learning communities and institutions situated in a range of political, geographical and cultural contexts. The additional elements of my identities are African American, Same-affection-loving, Prophetic Christian, northerner, southerner, and Midwesterner (Cooper & Gause, 2007). My praxis is rooted in collaborative activism, social justice, political struggle, and resistance. I did not come from a privileged background. I have two other siblings and, while growing up, my father worked in another state and my mother worked in various industries. She became ill and spent many of my elementary years in the hospital. I experienced poverty and under-employment in my home. My parents communicated to us the importance of getting a “good” education to escape poverty. I had great teachers and mentors. I saw examples of exceptional leadership throughout my K-12 and university experiences. My teachers and professors cared about me and my well-being. They had open hearts, as well as high expectations.
Parker Palmer, in his work The Courage to Teach: Exploring the Inner Landscape of a Teacher’s Life, explores this notion of courage. He asserts:
The courage to teach is the courage to keep one’s heart open in those very moments when the heart is asked to hold more than it is able so that teacher and students and subject can be woven into the fabric of community that learning, and living, require. (p. 11)
My experiences were cross-cultural, varied, and intense on so many levels. I was encouraged to excel and motivated to be the best. These experiences motivated me to receive my degrees from predominantly white institutions (PWIs). This did not come without its challenges. I spent my time in several classes being the only minority. I spent time in several programs with only a few people who “looked” like me. The terms “diversity,” “equity,” and “social justice” are not just buzz words for my educational lexicon. I lived those terms daily in multiple ways. I am a professor, an African American male queer professor. This narrative is a part of who I am. This narrative has been developed and re-developed through my experiences. Are we making progress? Yes, of course, we are making progress. Have we made enough progress? Well the answer depends upon who you ask.
Doing Diversity Work in Higher Education
It is difficult to do diversity work and create inclusive communities systemically. Creating such communities is not just a matter of putting into place some cultural programming or creating more committees or student groups with visible physical difference, but eliminating policies, practices, and procedures that could be perceived as barriers or discriminatory. This has not come without many challenges. While engaging in “diversity work” and “social justice activism,” I have witnessed workplace bullying and decisions that were made that were not equitable. I have had conversations with individuals who ← 6 | 7 → have been personally attacked via email by their colleagues and students both White, Black, and Gay. Stanley (2006) provides an analysis of the literature on faculty of color at PWIs, noting that the paucity (there is a little) of empirical research mirrors the low numbers of this population at such institutions. In comparatively analyzing qualitative studies of faculty of color at PWIs, Stanley (2006) concludes they are almost universally excluded, expected to only speak about diversity issues, expected to be a minority figurehead but not to engage in service directed at assisting minorities in some way, and expected, as scholars, to device their colored identity from their professional identity. The effects of affirmative action programs on hiring practices at PWIs in research is minimal; however, the literature does emphasize the act that faculty of color, once hired, experience “cultural taxation”—additional work expectations that do not boost their chances of earning tenure and/or promotion. Roseboro and Gause (2009) argue that faculty of color face the unenviable burden of being perceived as “tokens” (e.g. unqualified for the job), being typecast (expected to only to work at certain jobs), and of conducting illegitimate research when studying issues related to diversity (the “Brown on Brown” dilemma). Some faculty on this committee have discussed that they are serving in departments that claim to be about “social justice.” One in particular has discussed the mere facilitation of his move to another department created the “appearance of insensitivities” by some in leadership roles within his college. He believe the lack of courtesy and privilege of being a tenured associate professor who has worked tirelessly on behalf of diversity, equity, and inclusion has gone unnoticed and is a form of retaliation. Is it racism? Is it a lack of cultural sensitivity? Is it White privilege? Is it the continued marginalization and disenfranchisement of the “other”? I call these experiences contractual benevolence. You are welcome to come to dinner at my house and sit at my table; but you better behave while at the table. There could be numerous reasons for many of my experiences and the experiences of others who are not members of the dominant culture; however, the root of it all goes back to power and hegemony.
Theorizing about creating inclusive communities is different than actually putting theory into practice, and it can be painful in multiple ways for anyone who share this vision or mission. It requires a collective effort by members who represent as many communities as possible within the learning community. I have learned to not give the perception that I am pushing my “own” agenda. Power is continually at work within institutions regardless of membership. Creating inclusive learning communities is inherent in how individuals approach equity, access, diversity, social justice, racism, and their own biases. The majority of individuals I have encountered while conducting professional development sessions are usually operating out of a psychological view of racism. They believe if they could change what was in the heads of White people, particularly the top leadership of their institutions—who are all White and male that this would bring about a more inclusive and anti-oppressive environment. Educators often take this theoretical approach to dealing with racism. When utilizing this theoretical framework, resistance will always occur. I offer a structural analysis view of racism and diversity.
Racism is a structural construct or arrangement, if you will, among members of racial/ethnic groups. Racist institutions are controlled by the dominant culture, which develops, implements, and sustains practices, polices, and procedures that restrict the access of non-Whites to power and privilege. The evidence is clear in all institution of the United States. We see this currently regarding health care, immigration reform, access to higher education for children of undocumented workers and the killing of unarmed black men by police officers; across the nations. The debate within this country continues to grow exponentially.
Conclusion—Have We Made Enough Progress?
Leading today’s institutions of higher education requires equity and diversity in all communities present within the university structure to include faculty, staff and student body. There must be ethniclinguistic minority faculty members in the faculty ranks of PWIs (predominantly white institutions) in order for their missions and visions to be realized. All forms of segregation, self-imposed or occurring ← 7 | 8 → due to power and privilege must cease and desist. Opportunities to engage in social justice activism is not only welcomed but encouraged as a viable aspect of driving the curriculum.
Powell (2005) asserts
We … find ourselves today having to defend the principles of Brown against arguments that segregation has been disestablished or that its persistence is merely a matter of choice. Focusing on choice misconstrues racial separation as symmetrical, as if whites and blacks choose to be exclusive in the same fashion. Segregation, however, has historically been and remains today a reality imposed with power and privilege on those without. (p. 283)
Universities must create professional learning communities where all individuals, regardless of race, ethnicity, sexual identity, sexual orientation, religion, class, and ability, both physical and cognitive can engage in knowledge production and community building. According to Roseboro and Gause (2009) this requires a greater sense of responsibility and accountability for PWIs (predominantly white institutions). They assert that
Creating professional learning communities that attract qualified faculty members, regardless of race, should be the goal of any institution of higher education. For predominantly White institutions that are committed to creating racially inclusive professional learning communities the constructing of communities that sustain faculty of color requires an identification of what the culture of the institution is as well as the ways the institution might exclude (whether explicitly or implicitly). And, it requires recognition of the roles faculty of color might be asked to fulfill. Most important, it demands a “truth telling” process in which White faculty hear their colleagues of color, faculty of color hear their White colleagues, and both groups engage in dialogue about the institutional culture and how faculty members, administrators, staff and students might create sustainable, inclusive democratic learning communities. (p. 139)
Teaching, learning, and leading democratically requires constant participation with change. The purpose of higher education to provide opportunities and spaces for our citizenry to engage in democratic practices for the public good. Democracy is an enacted daily practice whereby people interact and relate through daily personal, social, and professional routines with a primary focus on continuing the betterment of our humanity. This is the cause of education. In order to do this, higher education must prepare critical transformative leaders who are willing and able to draw upon culturally relevant, critical, and counter-normative pedagogies. Yes, we are making progress; however, we have not made enough progress!
Carlson, D., & Gause, C. P. (2007). Keeping the promise; Essays on leadership, democracy and education. New York, NY: Peter Lang.
Cooper, C. W., & Gause, C. P. (2007). “Who’s afraid of the big bad wolf?” Facing identity politics and resistance when teaching for social justice. In D. Carlson & C. P. Gause (Eds.), Keeping the promise: Essays on leadership, democracy and education (pp. 197–216). New York, NY: Peter Lang.
Powell, J. (2005). A new theory of integrated education: True integration. In J. Boger & G. Orfield (Eds.), School resegregation: Must the south turn back? (pp. 281–304). Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
Roseboro, D., & Gause, C. P. (2009). Faculty of color constructing communities at predominantly White institutions. In C. A. Mullen (Ed.), Leadership and building professional learning communities (pp. 139–150). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
Stanley, C. (2006). Faculty of color: Teaching in predominantly white colleges and universities. Bolton, MA: Anker.
Public higher education in the United States has been under assault from creeping corporatization for the past several decades. This has changed public colleges and universities at their core, and many scholars have argued that this relatively new paradigm used to run public higher education has had an extremely negative impact not only on the institution itself, but also on faculty and students. Using critical pedagogy and critical theory as theoretical anchors, this chapter begins with defining corporatization and neoliberalism in the context of higher education. Then a brief treatment of the history of corporatization in public higher education will be undertaken, including how it has gained a stronghold on everything from philosophies of education to the philosophical approach to operating public institutions of higher education. Next, this chapter turns to several ways in which corporatization and neoliberalism have manifested in U.S. public higher education. What follows is a treatment of how this corporate intensification—and its sheer number of manifestations—has affected not only the process of education, but also the individuals at the heart of the academic enterprise; namely, students and faculty. Then, this chapter boldly lays out how neoliberalism and corporatization have created ill health for, and a palpable erosion of, the once highly cherished democratic principles for which public higher education stood and that it largely achieved. In the end, corporatization has taken a terrible toll on the institution and has negatively affected the quality of life of students and faculty. The conclusion of this chapter “connects the dots” and makes a case for how corporatization and neoliberalism have been detrimental to the health of U.S. public higher education and to the health of individuals and communities. Finally, a plea is made to push back to repair and restore democratic ideals and practices of U.S. public higher education.
Corporatization and Neoliberalism: Definitions and Context
In the context of this chapter, the term corporatization refers to the widespread practices of colleges and universities adopting business and management methods found in the private sector. The foundations of corporatization of U.S. public higher education can be traced to neoliberalism, which promotes the ← 9 | 10 → ideologies and practices of free market without governmental involvement or interference. Furthermore, according to Martinez and Garcia (1997), the prominent features of neoliberalism include (1) allowing the private sector to do business without any governmental regulations or restrictions, no matter how pernicious or harmful this is to social life; (2) slashing public funding for social services such as schooling and medical care; (3) relaxing governmental regulations of anything that minimizes—or in any way interferes with—revenues and profiteering; (4) privatizing public entities, services, and possessions; and (5) jettisoning the notion of “the public good” or “community” and instead focusing on “individual responsibility.” Neoliberalism, then, has given rise to—and has fueled—corporate ideologies and practices in U.S. higher education, which have been inextricably linked to elements of privatization in public colleges and universities across the nation. While some instances of corporatization (along with privatization) in higher education can be traced back to the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, there has been an ever-quickening escalation of corporatization ever since the early 1980s.
A Brief Historical Sketch of Corporatization and Neoliberalism in Public U.S. Higher Education
- XVI, 398
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- 2017 (May)
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- New York, Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, Frankfurt am Main, Oxford, Wien, 2017. XVI, 398 pp.