Translation, Globalization and Younger Audiences

The Situation in Poland

by Michał Borodo (Author)
Monographs XIV, 234 Pages


Translating for younger audiences is in need of critical investigation, as children’s and teenagers’ literature and media products are being increasingly globalized and glocalized, with translation playing an important role in the process. Media phenomena such as Harry Potter and animated Disney films travel across continents through hundreds of local cultures. These productions exert a homogenizing effect whilst at the same time undergoing transformation to adapt to new audiences.
This book distinguishes between textual glocalization, anglophone foreignization and large-scale adaptation, illustrating them with examples of translations of animated films by Pixar/Disney and DreamWorks, locally produced versions of the Horrible Histories series, Harry Potter translations and transmedial adaptations as well as film tie-ins. The book argues that global exchanges largely depend on the creative efforts of local agents – professional translators, adapters, retellers, publishers, writers, editors – and sheds light on the initiatives of non-professional translators, including scanlators, fansubbers, hip-hop fans and harrypotterians. By examining globally distributed titles translated at the turn of the twenty-first century, the volume aims at filling a gap at the intersection of translation studies, globalization research and the study of children’s literature and culture.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author(s)/editor(s)
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Contents
  • List of Figures
  • Acknowledgements
  • Introduction
  • Chapter 1: A theoretical framework: Translation and globalization
  • Preliminary assumptions
  • Global interconnectedness
  • Publishing and media networks
  • Multiple global flows
  • One-to-many and many-to-many paradigms
  • Global cultural processes
  • Globalization as translation and clonialism
  • Spread of sameness and cultural insipidity
  • Translation, glocalization and glocal texts
  • Key players in international translation exchanges
  • Translators, publishers and business
  • Amateur translation
  • Networking players
  • Chapter 2: Translation for younger audiences
  • The institutional and theoretical contexts
  • Children’s Literature Translation Studies (CLTS)
  • Klingberg’s map (1978)
  • The CLTS survey (2007)
  • Selected research perspectives
  • Translation and the cultural other
  • Reader- and translator-orientedness
  • Between the verbal and the visual
  • Polysystems, norms, ideology
  • Mapping the socio-historical context
  • Copy of the Eastern original
  • New trends of the 1990s
  • Global networks and flows
  • Chapter 3: Globalization and the cultural other
  • Domestication, foreignization and younger audiences
  • Tradition of domestication
  • Foreignization flows
  • The foreign flavour of Harry Potter
  • Writing for a global audience
  • The translator and the publisher
  • What telling names tell us
  • The familiar overtones of Dr Seuss
  • Dr Seuss and Stanisław Barańczak
  • Mulberry Street
  • Horton and Mayzie
  • Sally and Sam
  • Chapter 4: Audiovisual translation and glocalization
  • Translation and glocal animated films
  • Audiovisual glocalization and dubbing
  • American monsters and ghosts of the communist past
  • The world of robots: Between pragmatism and romanticism
  • New York City, Polish seaside and ration coupons
  • Tales about sharks, politics and popular culture
  • Re-rendering scenes with text
  • The glocal version of Wall-E
  • The glocal version of Up
  • Re-rendering images
  • Chapter 5: Adaptations in the age of globalization
  • Old thinking and new horizons
  • Adaptation evolving in time
  • Adaptations of the past
  • Adaptations of the present
  • Adaptations of Disney’s Peter Pan
  • The Darling family
  • A more free and expressive version
  • Recycling, clonialism and glocalization
  • Chapter 6: Translation, glocalization and edutainment
  • Edutainment for younger audiences
  • Edutainment and glocal Sesame Street
  • Horrible Histories: Edutainment for tweens
  • Horrible Histories in translation
  • The polished Polish passages
  • A variety of vibrant versions
  • The global series goes glocal
  • The local offshoot of the series
  • Translations, transformations, trajectories
  • Chapter 7: Comics and globalization
  • Comics in translation
  • International expansion and formal characteristics
  • Research perspectives on translation of comics
  • Calvin and Hobbes comic strips in translation
  • Main characteristics and publishing history
  • The boy, the tiger and textual appropriation
  • Translation, condensation and comics
  • Comics in the glocalizing world
  • Chapter 8: The rise of the amateur translator
  • Amateurs versus professionals
  • Grass-roots amateur translation projects
  • Comics Flying Circus and scanlators’ code of ethics
  • An amateur subtitling project and legal controversies
  • Harrypotterians’ local protests
  • The hip-hop Gospel: Rejuvenation of the Bible of blasphemy?
  • Conclusion
  • Bibliography
  • Books and films for younger audiences
  • Secondary references
  • Index
  • Series index

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Figure 1: The Polish translation of J. K. Rowling’s Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone (2000) published by Media Rodzina.74

Figure 2: The Polish translation of Dr Seuss’s The Cat in the Hat (2003a) published by Media Rodzina.81

Figure 3: Newspaper headline from Wall-E (2008) by Pixar/Disney, dir. Andrew Stanton, and its re-rendered version in Polish.103

Figure 4: Billboard from Wall-E (2008) by Pixar/Disney, dir. Andrew Stanton, and its re-rendered version in Polish.104

Figure 5: Re-rendered versions of a newspaper headline and a billboard from the French-language version of Wall-E (2008) by Pixar/Disney, dir. Andrew Stanton.105

Figure 6: The cover of Ellie’s scrapbook from Up (2009) by Pixar/Disney, dir. Pete Docter, and its re-rendered version in Polish.107

Figure 7: Re-rendered covers of Ellie’s scrapbook from the Spanish- and Japanese-language versions of Up (2009) by Pixar/Disney, dir. Andrew Stanton.108

Figure 8: One of the pages in Ellie’s scrapbook from Up (2009) by Pixar/Disney, dir. Pete Docter, and its re-rendered version in Polish.109

Figure 9: One of the animated characters from Zootopia (2016) by Disney, dir. Byron Howard and Rich Moore.113

Figure 10: The same animated character from the Chinese version of Zootopia (2016) by Disney, dir. Byron Howard and Rich Moore.113 ← ix | x →

Figure 11: The same animated character from the Japanese version of Zootopia (2016) by Disney, dir. Byron Howard and Rich Moore.114

Figure 12: The same animated character from the Australian version of Zootopia (2016) by Disney, dir. Byron Howard and Rich Moore.114

Figure 13: Adaptations of Disney’s Peter Pan by Jaworowski (1991) and Kaczmarski (1996) published by Egmont Polska.126–7

Figure 14: Cover of the original The Groovy Greeks (Deary 1996) published by Scholastic and its Polish translation Ci rewelacyjni Grecy (Deary 1998) published by Egmont Polska.143

Figure 15: A cartoon strip about a Celtic Princess Canna from The Cut-throat Celts (Deary 1997b: 63) published by Scholastic.150

Figure 16: A cartoon strip about a Celtic Princess Canna from the Polish translation of The Cut-throat Celts (Deary 1999: 63) published by Egmont Polska.150

Figure 17: A comic strip from The Terrible Tudors (Deary 1993: 7) published by Scholastic.151

Figure 18: A comic strip from the Polish translation of The Terrible Tudors (Deary 2007: 7) published by Egmont Polska.152

Figures 19: Book covers of the Polish versions of Horrible Histories on Polish history by Fabianowska and Nesteruk (2003, 2006) published by Egmont Polska.155

Figure 20: Fake newspaper articles from the original The Angry Aztecs (Deary 1997a: 113) published by Scholastic and Ci Sprytni Słowianie [Those Cunning Slavs], the Polish book on the history of Slavs (Fabianowska & Nesteruk 2003: 55) published by Egmont Polska.156–7 ← x | xi →

Figure 21: A cartoon from the original version of The Groovy Greeks (Deary 1996: 11) published by Scholastic.160

Figure 22: A cartoon from the glocal Polish version of Horrible Histories, Ci Sprytni Słowianie [Those Cunning Slavs] (Fabianowska & Nesteruk 2003: 44) published by Egmont Polska.160

Figure 23: The Polish translation of Calvin and Hobbes (Kelvin & Celsjusz 1995: 24).171

Figure 24: The Polish translation of Calvin and Hobbes (Kelvin & Celsjusz 1995: 24).173

Figure 25: The Polish translation of Calvin and Hobbes (Kelvin & Celsjusz 1995: 24).173

Figure 26: The Polish translation of Calvin and Hobbes (Kelvin & Celsjusz 1995: 24).175

Figure 27: The Polish translation of Calvin and Hobbes (Kelvin & Celsjusz 1995: 25).176

Figure 28: The Polish translation of Calvin and Hobbes (Kelvin & Celsjusz 1995: 26).177

Figure 29: The Polish superhero comic book Biały Orzeł by Kmiołek and Kmiołek (2011).180

Figure 30: The Polish superhero comic book Polski Duch by Kleszcz and Gaszczyński (2013).182

Every effort has been made to trace copyright holders and to obtain their permission for the use of copyright material and I would be grateful for notification of any corrections that should be incorporated in future reprints or editions of this book.

| xiii →


This book incorporates material previously published in journal articles and chapters of edited volumes, which has been significantly expanded and revised. More specifically, sections of Chapters 2, 4, 5, 6 and 7 appeared in earlier versions in Vanessa Joosen and Katrien Vloeberghs (eds), Changing Concepts of Childhood and Children’s Literature, Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Press, 2006; Przekładaniec (22–3), Kraków: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego, 2011; Paweł Schreiber (ed.), Into the Past: Studies in Literature and Culture, Bydgoszcz: Wydawnictwo UKW, 2011; Translation Ireland 19(1), Dublin: Irish Translators’ and Interpreters’ Association, 2013; Perspectives: Studies in Translatology 23(1), 2015; TranscUlturAl 8(2), 2016. I am also grateful to the authors and publishers who kindly gave their permission to use copyright images.

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The tectonic plates within the discipline of translation studies are constantly shifting: audiovisual translation (AVT) studies has recently emerged as a powerful and dynamically developing (sub)discipline, and non-professional translation has been gaining ground even more recently, although these subfields were some time ago of marginal interest. New tectonic plates are ascending, older ones may be dragged downward. When in such intradisciplinary tectonics plates slide towards each other and meet, something new may emerge – a potentially new way of looking at certain interrelated phenomena so far investigated separately. I want to suggest such a perspective in this book.


XIV, 234
ISBN (Softcover)
Publication date
2017 (August)
translation children’s literature globalization
Oxford, Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, Frankfurt am Main, New York, Wien, 2017. XIV, 234 pp., 30 b/w ill., 21 tables

Biographical notes

Michał Borodo (Author)

Michał Borodo is Assistant Professor in the Institute of Modern Languages and Applied Linguistics at Kazimierz Wielki University, Bydgoszcz, Poland, where he is also Head of Postgraduate Studies for Translators and Interpreters. He has published on various topics in translation studies and his main research interests include translation and language in the context of globalization, the translation of children’s literature and comics, and translator training.


Title: Translation, Globalization and Younger Audiences
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