A Guide to LGBTQ+ Inclusion on Campus, Post-PULSE

by Virginia Stead (Volume editor)
©2017 Textbook XXVI, 342 Pages


The research in A Guide to LGBTQ+ Inclusion on Campus, Post-PULSE is premised on the notion that, because we cannot choose our sexual, racial, ethnic, cultural, political, geographic, economic, and chronological origins, with greater advantage comes greater responsibility to redistribute life’s resources in favor of those whose human rights are compromised and who lack the fundamental necessities of life. Among these basic rights are access to higher education and to positive campus experiences. Queer folk and LGBTQ+ allies have collaborated on this new text in response to the June 16, 2016 targeted murder of 49 innocent victims at the PULSE nightclub, Orlando, Florida. Seasoned and novice members of the academy will find professional empowerment from these authors as they explicitly discuss multiple level theory, policy, and strategies to support LGBTQ+ campus inclusion. Their work illuminates how good, bad, and indeterminate public legislation impacts LGBTQ+ communities everywhere, and it animates multiple layers of campus life, ranging from lessons within a three-year-old day care center to policy-making among senior administration. May the power of well-chosen words continue to deepen our understanding, clarify our communication, and empower us all as pro-LGBTQ+ campus activists.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author(s)/editor(s)
  • About the book
  • Advance Praise for A Guide to LGBTQ+ Inclusion on Campus, Post-PULSE
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Table of Contents
  • Tables and Figures
  • Foreword: Reflections on a History of Queer Life in Higher Education (Warren J. Blumenfeld)
  • Heterosexism in the Cold War
  • Something was Missing
  • Curiosity and Fear
  • One Year “Sick” and then Not
  • Hope for the Future
  • References
  • Acknowledgments
  • Introduction: Powerful Lessons for Making All Campuses LGBTQ+ Inclusive (Virginia Stead)
  • Part One: Beyond the Campus Gates: How State Sanctioned Practice Impacts LGBTQ+ Communities
  • Chapter One: If Gender Isn’t Binary: A Legal Review of Titles VII and IX (Barbara Qualls)
  • Introduction
  • What is Transgender?
  • The Civil Rights Act: Title VII and Title IX
  • Employment Law Discrimination
  • Transgender Discrimination and Employment Law
  • Titles VII and IX in Employment Law
  • Significant Employment Law Cases
  • Education Law Discrimination
  • Title VII and Title IX in Education Law
  • With “Sex” Defined, What About Bathrooms?
  • Protecting and Litigating Rights to Bathroom and Locker Room Access
  • The National Future of Bathroom and Locker Room Wars
  • References
  • Chapter Two: Just Another Gay Day in the Campus Three Year Old Room (Robin K. Fox / Erica Schepp)
  • The Setting
  • Campus Children’s Centers as LGBTQ Spaces
  • Developmentally Appropriate Practices as a Starting Point
  • Using Anti-Bias Education with Children and at Universities
  • The Potential Impact in Childcare Centers and on Campus
  • Increasing Numbers: Children, Parents, Students, Faculty, Staff
  • Beyond Displaying the Books and Heteronormative Discourses
  • Back to the Three Year Old Classroom
  • A Personal note from Robin
  • References
  • Chapter Three: Checking the Pulse Early: LGBTQ-Inclusive Curriculum in Elementary Schools (Dominic Grasso / Traci P. Baxley)
  • Our Motivation for Writing
  • The Danger of Waiting Until Children are Older to Teach About Sexuality and Gender
  • Theoretical Framework
  • The Role of Elementary Schools in Re/Creating Social Justice
  • Strategies for Promoting LGBTQ-Inclusive Elementary Classrooms
  • Summary
  • Appendix
  • Annotated Bibliography of Elementary School Books with LGBTQ Themes
  • References
  • Chapter Four: When Secondary Schools Fail: LGBT Issues in the Juvenile Justice System (Shiv R. Desai)
  • Introduction
  • School Bullying, Family Abandonment, and the Juvenile Justice System
  • School Bullying
  • Family Abandonment, Abuse and Rejection
  • LGBT and the Juvenile Justice System
  • Positive and/or Community Youth Development
  • Methodology
  • Findings and Discussion
  • Schooling Was Painful
  • Domestic Violence
  • Castaway on the Streets
  • Being Gay in the Detention Center
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Part Two: Systemic Campus Failures to Include the LGBTQ+ Community
  • Chapter Five: LGBTQ Marginalization or Inclusion? Troubling Institutional Assertions of Commitment to Social Justice (Valerie a. guerrero / Kari J. Dockendorff)
  • Campus Context
  • Setting and Situation
  • The Influence of Campus Climate
  • Through the Lens of Critical Race Theory
  • Through the Queer Theory Lens
  • Examining Campus Responses Through CRT and Queer Theory
  • Recommendations for Inclusive Campus Responses to Crisis Situations
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter Six: Big U Knows Best: Patronizing Queer Campus Culture (S. Gavin Weiser / Travis L. Wagner)
  • Orientation: Histories of Exploitation and Exclusion of Queer Campus Folx
  • Research 101: A Review of Literature on Campus Inclusion and Heteronormative Regimes
  • Special Topics Seminar: A Case Study of Queer Exclusion at One Southern University
  • Graduation: The Future of Queer Inclusion in the Academy
  • References
  • Chapter Seven: “It’s Not Natural!” (Wahinkpe Topa (Four Arrows) aka Don Trent Jacobs)
  • In the Beginning
  • A Natural Course of Diversity
  • Experiences of Being Two-Spirit
  • Natural Balances
  • Concluding Thoughts
  • References
  • Chapter Eight: Writing from Queer Silos: Implications of Tokenizing Queer Identities in Counsellor Education (Christopher A. Cumby)
  • Introduction
  • In the Classroom
  • (Lack of) Support
  • Being “Out” in the Classroom
  • Cultural Competency and Queer Lives
  • Student Cultural Awareness
  • Microaggressions and Tokenism
  • Recommendations for Moving Forward
  • References
  • Part Three: LGBTQ+ Faculty and Student Narratives of Profound Campus Exclusion
  • Chapter Nine: Our Morning after PULSE: A Parent/Teacher Educator’s Experience of Protection, Invisibility, and Action (Sarah Pickett)
  • Our Morning: Protection, Invisibility, and Action
  • Protecting our Own Children from the Pulse Aftermath
  • 6:00 a.m.
  • 6:15 a.m.
  • 6:35 a.m.
  • 6:45 a.m.
  • 7:00 a.m.
  • 7:05 a.m.
  • 7:15 a.m. (Kitchen Table)
  • 7:20 a.m.
  • 7:30 a.m.
  • Invisibility and Voice During our Morning After the Pulse Massacre
  • 8:15 a.m. Elementary School
  • Moving Past Minimum Standards of Tolerance and Toward LGBTQ Affirming Practices
  • Institutional Activism
  • 9:00 a.m. The Academy
  • Educators Challenging Hetero/Cisnormativity: an Ethic of Care
  • Practicing Affirming LGBTQ+ Pedagogy
  • References
  • Chapter Ten: Embodying Queer Pedagogy on Campus: Autoethnographic Explorations after Orlando, FL (Kerri Mesner)
  • Opening with Questions
  • Positionality
  • National Climate
  • Moments of Impact
  • Months before Orlando …
  • Summer 2016 … after Orlando
  • Navigating Open-Heartedness and Social Power
  • Closing with Questions
  • References
  • Chapter Eleven: Liminal Living Liberates (Alan Smith)
  • Opening Thoughts
  • Research, Education, and Empowerment
  • Concluding Thoughts
  • References
  • Chapter Twelve: Fear and the Unknown: Harrowing Experiences of LGBTQ Students in Higher Education (Eric J. Weber / Karin Ann Lewis)
  • Introduction
  • Research Background
  • Purpose
  • Review of the Literature
  • Methodology
  • Findings about LGBTQ Student Victimization
  • Dominant Characteristics of Successful LGBT Students
  • Fear
  • Resiliency
  • Discussion
  • Final Thoughts
  • References
  • Part Four: Contrasting Examples of Leadership Training for LGBTQ+ Inclusiveness
  • Chapter Thirteen: Preparing Social Justice Leaders to Deconstruct Heterosexual Privilege (Karen (Karie) K. Huchting / Jill Bickett / Emily S. Fisher)
  • Introduction
  • Context
  • Statement of the Problem
  • Hostile School Climate
  • Lack of Trust
  • Lack of Training
  • A Call to Action
  • A Framework for LSJ Programs
  • Framework Dimensions
  • Recommendations
  • The Change Process
  • What School Leaders Need to Know, Be, and Do
  • What LSJ Programs Need to Teach, Model, and Ensure
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter Fourteen: Increasing Gender and Identity Competency Among Student Affairs Professionals (Angela Clark-Taylor / Kaitlin Legg / Carissa Cardenas / Rachael Rehage)
  • Introduction
  • Preparing Student Affairs Professionals to Work with Students with MIOSG
  • Addressing Diversity Through Multicultural Education
  • Filling the Gaps: MIOSG Research and Training
  • Professional Development and Continued Learning
  • Research Methodology
  • Data Collection
  • Data Analysis
  • Results
  • Limitations
  • Expanding the HESA Curriculum
  • Postgraduate Professional Development for Student Affairs Personnel
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Part Five: Moving Forward: Inclusive LGBTQ+ Policy Implementation
  • Chapter Fifteen: George Washington University: One Campus Takes Comprehensive Action Against Hate Crimes (Carol A. Kochhar-Bryant)
  • Introduction
  • Recent Advances in Campus Policy for LGBT Individuals
  • Economic Development, Workforce Development and Inclusion
  • Campuses Work to Promote Equity: Against Some ODDS
  • Campus Responses to Discrimination and Hate Crimes
  • Policy Changes at GW
  • Academic Innovation
  • Women’s, Gender, and Sexuality Studies Program
  • Support Services
  • Closing
  • References
  • Chapter Sixteen: Beyond Safe Zones: Disruptive Strategies Towards LGBTQ Inclusion on Campus (Pietro A. Sasso / Laurel Puchner)
  • Introduction
  • University-Related Challenges for LGBTQ Individuals
  • Discrimination and Heterosexism
  • Mental and Physical Health
  • Typical University Approaches to Creation of an Inclusive Institution
  • Campus Climate Evaluation
  • Safe Zone Programs
  • Beyond the Common Focus
  • Beyond Campus Climate and Safe Zones: Strategies and Implications for Practice
  • Filling in the Climate and Safety Gaps
  • Intersectionality
  • Queering Higher Education
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter Seventeen: Supporting Queer Survivors of Sexual Assault on Campus (Nicole Bedera / Kristjane Nordmeyer)
  • Introduction
  • Academic Scholarship on LGBTQ Sexual Victimization
  • Queer Women’s Experiences
  • Harm Caused by Student Members of the LGBTQ Campus Community
  • Harmed Caused by College Staff Members
  • Recommendations for Supporting Queer Survivors
  • Collaborating with Anti-Violence Experts
  • Making LGBTQ Spaces Safe for Survivors
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter Eighteen: Stories of LGBTQ+ Hate, Fear, Hope, and Love in the University of Hawai’i System: Twenty Years of the Marriage Equality Movement (Rae Watanabe / Tara O’Neill / Camaron Miyamoto)
  • Introduction
  • Community and Campus Impact of Baehr V. Lewin
  • Impact on the Flagship Campus, University of Hawai’i at Mānoa
  • Impact on Leeward Community College
  • Current LGBTQ Campus Climate within the UH System
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Part Six: Reaching Out: Transformative LGBTQ+ Curriculum and Pedagogy
  • Chapter Nineteen: Creating an Inclusive Learning Environment for LGBT Students on College Campuses (Clayton R. Alford)
  • Introduction
  • Historical Background
  • Maintaining a Safe Environment for LGBT Students
  • LGBTQ Campus Climate
  • Tolerance and Bigotry Often Coexist on Campus
  • Innovative Learning for LGBT Students
  • The Academy and Library Censorship of LGBT Concerns
  • Strategies to Improve Conditions of LGBT Faculty and Students
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter Twenty: Transgender/Gender Non-Binary Inclusion in Higher Education Courses (Brandon L. Beck / Katherine Lewis / Susan M. Croteau)
  • Introduction
  • Theoretical Framework
  • Preparing for Professional Development
  • Implementing Professional Development
  • Identity Work
  • Critical Awareness and Reflection
  • Evaluating Professional Development: Interviews with Faculty Members
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter Twenty-One: “How Do You Ally?” Redefining the Language We Use in Ally Education (Laura D. Gentner / Kristen Altenau Keen)
  • Introduction
  • Ally (N.): “Ally” as Identity
  • Ally (V.): “Ally” as Action
  • Allyship (N.): Revitalizing Ally Trainings
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter Twenty-Two: Utilizing Indigenous Pedagogies to Uproot Racism and LGBTQ+ Intolerance: A Student Affairs Perspective (Camaron Miyamoto / Dean Hamer / Joe Wilson / Hinaleimoana Wong-Kalu)
  • The Kingdom of Hawai‘i
  • Indigenous Narratives of Place and Voice
  • Unmasking Marriage (IN)Equality by Engaging Native Hawai’ian Epistemologies
  • Indigenous Cultures: Uprooting LGBT Hate From the Base
  • References
  • Chapter Twenty-Three: Dialogues on Diversity: A Curricular Option to Promote LGBTQIA Inclusion on Campus (Paul S. Hengesteg)
  • Introduction
  • Dialogues on Diversity
  • Dialogues on Gender and Sexual Orientation
  • Assessment Methodology
  • Findings
  • From the Student Survey
  • From the Facilitator Focus Group
  • From the Classroom Activities
  • The Future of Dialogues on Diversity
  • The Future of Dialogues on Gender and Sexual Orientation
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter Twenty-Four: Remember PULSE: LGBT Understanding and Learning Serves Everyone (Pamela Ross McClain)
  • Introduction
  • Perpetrators Unleashed on LGBTS = Senseless Evil
  • The Pulse Principle
  • P.U.L.S.E. Theme 1: Proactive University Leadership Supports Equity for LBGTs
  • P.U.L.S.E. Theme 2: Pedagogies to Unlearn LGBT Stereotypical Expectations
  • P.U.L.S.E. Theme 3: Pride in Unmasked Lives to Showcase Equity for LGBTs
  • P.U.L.S.E. Theme 4: Practicing Unconditional Love as the Standard for Everyone
  • People United in Love to Stop Eradication of the LGBTQ Community
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Conclusion … and a Call to Action: LGBTQ+ Inclusion: Getting It Right on Our Own Campuses (Virginia Stead)
  • Afterword: Ending the Erasure of Trans* and Non-Binary Students Through Higher Education Policy (Kari J. Dockendorff)
  • Introduction
  • Terminology
  • State Legislation and Federal Policy
  • Institutional Level Policies
  • Discourse on Trans* and Non-Binary Students
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • About the Contributors
  • Series index

| xi →

Tables and Figures


Table 3.1. Suggestions for LGBTQ-Positive K to 5 Curriculum

Table 3.2. Suggestions for LGBTQ-Positive 3 to 5 Curriculum

Table 18.1. Campus Pride Index 2014 Survey Results


Figure 11.1. A Self-Reflective Portrait

Figure 11.2. EGO!

Figure 18.1. UH Commission on the Status of LGBTI Equality Survey

Figure 23.1. Student Survey

| xiii →


Reflections on a History of Queer Life in Higher Education


I travel around the United States and to other countries giving presentations and training workshops on college, university, and high school campuses and at professional conventions on topics around social justice issues.

Recently, after I spoke about heterosexism and cissexism at an east coast university, a student asked me what my undergraduate LGBT student group was like. “Was there much resistance from the administration and from other students?” she inquired. More questions followed: “Did the women and men work well together?” “Were bisexuals and trans people welcomed?” “Was the group’s focus political or mainly social?” “Was there a separate ‘coming out’ group for new members?” “What kinds of campus activities did your group sponsor?”

As she asked me these questions, my head began to whirl with visions of my undergraduate years. I stopped long enough to inform her that I graduated with my B.A. degree on June 13, 1969—15 days before the momentous Stonewall rebellion, an event generally credited with sparking the modern movement for LGBT liberation and equality.

Though I later learned that some universities like Cornell, Stanford, and Columbia had officially recognized LGBT student groups before 1969, as a graduating senior, the concept of an “out” person, let alone an organized, above-ground student organization was not even in my range of possibilities. ← xiii | xiv →


I was born during the height of the Cold War era directly following World War II, a time when any sort of human difference was held suspect. On the floor of the U.S. Senate, a young and brash senator from Wisconsin, Joseph McCarthy, loudly proclaimed that “Communists corrupt the minds, and homosexuals corrupt the bodies” of good, upstanding Americans, and he proceeded to purge suspected Communists and homosexuals from government service.

When I was only 2 years old, my parents suspected that I might be gay, or to use the terminology of the day, “homosexual.” Shy, withdrawn, I preferred to spend most of my time alone. Later, on the playground at school, children called me names like “sissy”, “fairy”, “pansy”, “little girl”, and “fag” with an incredible vehemence and malice that I did not understand.

My parents sent me to a child psychologist from 1951, when I was only 4 years old, until I reached my 13th birthday, with the expressed purpose of making sure that I did not grow up “homosexual.” Each session at the psychologist’s office, I took off my coat and placed it on the hook behind the door, and for the next 50 minutes, the psychologist and I built model airplanes, cars, and trains—so-called age-appropriate “boy-type toys.” It was obvious that the psychologist confused issues of gender with sexuality believing that one could prevent homosexuality by imposing “masculine” behaviors.

During high school in the early 1960s, I had very few friends and never dated. It was not that I did not wish to date, but I wanted to date some of the other boys. I could not even talk about this at the time, for the concept of high school Gay/Straight Alliance was still many years in the future. In high school, the topic of homosexuality rarely surfaced officially in the classroom, and then only in a negative context. I graduated high school in 1965 with the hope that college life would somehow be better for me. I hoped that people would be more open-minded, less conforming, and more accepting of difference.


To a great extent, things were better. In college, I demonstrated my opposition to the war in Vietnam with others. I worked to reduce racism on campus, and I helped plan environmental ecology teach-ins. Nevertheless, there was still something missing for me. I knew I was gay, but I had no outlet of support through which I could express my feelings. As far as I knew, there were no openly LGBT people, no support groups, no organizations, and no classes or library materials that did anything more than tell me that homosexuality was “abnormal” and that I needed to change. ← xiv | xv →

In 1967, I finally decided to see a therapist in the campus counseling center, and I began what for me was a very difficult coming out process. And then during my first year of graduate school in 1970, I experienced a turning point in my life.

In my campus newspaper, The Spartan Daily, at San José State University, I saw the headline in big bold letters: “GAY LIBERATION FRONT DENIED CAMPUS RECOGNITION.” The article stated that the chancellor of the California State University system, Glenn Dumke, under then Governor Ronald Reagan’s direction, had denied recognition to the campus chapter of Gay Liberation Front.

In the ruling, Dumke stated that:


This was the first I had heard of such a group, and the first time I had heard about other LGBT people on my campus. I called the coordinator of the group, and she invited me to the next meeting. Since the chancellor did not permit group members to hold meetings on our campus, they met at a little diner on a small side street a few blocks off campus. Unfortunately, this only confirmed my fears of the underground nature of LGBT life. As I approached the door to enter the meeting, I felt as if I were a member of the French resistance during the Nazi occupation.

Upon entering, I saw around 15 people. I recognized one man from my chemistry class, but the others were strangers. I saw a near even mix of men and women, which made me feel a bit easier. In my mind, I had envisioned 50 men waiting to pounce on me as I entered, but I soon discovered that they were all good people who were concerned about me. They invited me to their homes, and before too long, I relaxed in their presence.

I left San José in 1971 to work for a progressive educational journal, EdCentric, at the National Student Association in Washington, DC. Within a few months after arriving, I founded and became the first director of the National Gay Student Center, a national clearinghouse working to connect and exchange information between the newly emerging network of LGBT campus organizations within the United States.

One year after leaving San José, I read that students at Sacramento State University, represented by the student government, had sued the chancellor in Sacramento County Superior Court and won the case forcing the university ← xv | xvi → officially to recognize their group. The court upheld the students’ First Amendment rights to free speech and freedom of association by affirming their contention that, “… to justify suppression of free speech, there must be reasonable grounds to fear that serious evil will result if free speech is practiced; there must be reasonable ground to believe that the danger apprehended is imminent.”

I had the opportunity to talk with Marty Rogers, one of the founding members of the LGBT group at Sacramento State University, who described how the denial of recognition and eventual court battle were instrumental in the group’s organizing success:

Fortified by this precedent-setting case, other campus groups throughout the country have waged and won similar battles.


While living in Washington, DC, I became an active member of the Gay Liberation Front. One demonstration in particular sticks out in my mind. We had been jointly planning our tactics over the past month. I and my compatriots of the Gay Liberation Front and Gay May Day collective, friends from the Mattachine Society, and members of the newly formed Gay Activists Alliance were to gather on this bright morning during the first week of May in 1971, and carpool up Connecticut Avenue in northwest Washington, DC to the Shoreham Hotel. Also uniting with us were people from out-of-town who joined us as part of Gay May Day as we attempted to shut down the federal government for what we considered to be an illegal and immoral invasion into Vietnam.

We parked about a block away since we didn’t want hotel security and attendees at the American Psychiatric Association (APA) annual conference to notice a rather large group of activists sporting T-shirts and placards announcing “Gay Is Good”, “Psychiatry Is the Enemy”, and “Gay Revolution.” Half the men decked themselves in stunning drag wearing elegant wigs and shimmering lamé dresses, glittering fairy dust wafting their painted faces.

A year before, at the APA conference held in San Francisco, activists demonstrated outside and a few got inside. As a result, conference organizers conceded to ← xvi | xvii → permit a panel to lead a discussion workshop at the 1971 annual conference in DC under the title, “Lifestyles of Nonpatient Homosexuals.” The panelists (below, from left to right), included Dr. Franklin Kameny, Director of Mattachine DC; Barbara Gittings, Director of the Philadelphia office of Daughters of Bilitis; and Jack Baker, University of Minnesota, who was the first “out” U.S. student body president.

In their capacity as official conference panelists, these three were granted inside access to all proceedings, including admission to the annual Convocation of Fellows, in which all attendees were to hear U.S. Attorney General Ramsey Clark deliver the keynote address in the hotel’s over-the-top Regency Ballroom. Earlier in the week, some of us checked out the hotel’s layout. The day before, a comrade placed a wedge in a doorway coming from the Rock Creek Park woods into the hotel, where we gained access.

All along, the panelists were to serve as our Trojan Horses. After the Convocation was called to order, and half-way through Clark’s address, our insiders opened the doors and in we poured, chanting, waving, and shouting. On stage, we witnessed a stunned Attorney General surrounded by similarly stunned and also upset APA officials, and seated in the front rows we noticed elderly men who wore gold medals around their necks. When they saw us, they stood and began beating us with their medals while shouting “Get out of here. We don’t want any more people like you here!” Others yelled: “You’re sick, you’re sick you faggots, you drag queens!” Other psychiatrists stood up from their seats and attempted to push us physically from the hall. I was able to escape their grasp, and I sat locking arms with a contingent on the floor just beneath the stage.

I then saw Franklin Kameny rush the stage and grab the microphone, his booming voice cracking through the pandemonium even after the technician cut the power. “Psychiatry is the enemy incarnate”, he yelled, the anger seemingly oozing from his pores. “You may take this as a declaration of war against you!”

And this was, indeed, our intent: To declare war on the psychiatric profession for the atrocities, the colonization, the “professional” malpractice it had perpetrated over the preceding century in the name of “science”, and the biological and psychological pathologizing of sexual and gender transgressive people. From the so-called “Eugenics Movement” of the mid-19th century though the 20th century CE and beyond, medical and psychological professions have often proposed and addressed, in starkly medical terms, the alleged “deficiencies” and “mental diseases” of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people.

The Eugenics Movement in science was coined by Francis Galton in England in 1883 from the Greek word meaning “well born” or “of good origins or breeding”, and it codified the socially constructed hierarchical concept of “race.” Using this concept, some members of the scientific community viewed people attracted to their own sex as constituting a distinct biological or racial type—those who could be distinguished from “normal” people through anatomical markers. ← xvii | xviii →

For example, Dr. G. Frank Lydston, an American urologist, surgeon, and Professor from Chicago, in 1889 delivered a lecture at the College of Physicians and Surgeons in Chicago in which he referred to homosexuals as “sexual perverts” who are “physically abnormal.” He continued:

Also, the American medical doctor, Allan McLane Hamilton, wrote in 1896 that “the [female homosexual] is usually of a masculine type, or if she presented none of the ‘characteristics’ of the male, was a subject of pelvic disorder, with scanty menstruation, and was more or less hysterical and insane.”

In another example, Physician, Perry M. Lichtenstein, published in 1921 that: “A physical examination of [female homosexuals] will in practically every instance disclose an abnormally prominent clitoris” (p. 372).

Furthermore, in France in 1857, Ambroise Tardieu wrote that: “This degeneracy is evidenced in men who engage in same-sex eroticism by their underdeveloped, tapered penis resembling that of a dog, and a naturally smooth anus lacking in radial folds.”

In addition, and rather than considering homosexuality, bisexuality, and gender non-conformity merely as emotional, gender, and sexual differences along a broad spectrum of human potential, some sectors of the medical and psychological communities forced pathologizing language onto people with same-sex and both-sex attractions, as well as on those who cross traditional constructions of gender identities and expression. Dr. Sigmund Freud (1986), for example, saw homosexuality as a developmental disorder, a fixation at one of the intermediate “pregenital” stages. He believed this was caused, at least in part, by an incomplete resolution in males of the Oedipal complex.

Another respected expert, the Swiss physician, August Forel, wrote in 1905:

Educational opportunities for primarily middle-class women improved somewhat during mid-19th century in the United States. Although they were locked out of most institutions of higher learning, a number of women’s colleges were founded, such as Mt. Holyoke College, Vassar, Smith College, Wellesley College, and Bryn Mawr. There were, however, many conservative critics who attacked this new ← xviii | xix → trend, warning that educated women would be unfit to fill their traditional roles in society. Some, like Dr. Edward Clarke, in 1873 warned that study would interfere with women’s fertility, causing them chronic uterine disease. And Dr. Havelock Ellis (1939) concluded that:

Ellis (1939) also posited that female homosexuality was increasing because of the rise of feminism, which taught women to be independent of men.

All of this has resulted in members of the medical professions committing lesbians, gay males, bisexuals, and those who transgress so-called “normative” gender identities and expressions (often against their will) to hospitals, mental institutions, jails, and penitentiaries, where they have been forced to undergo pre-frontal lobotomies, electroshock, castration, and sterilization. As well, we have been made to endure “aversion therapy”, “reparative therapy”, “Christian counseling”, and genetic counseling.

The first Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-I) (the APA-sponsored and endorsed handbook of mental disorders) published in 1952, listed homosexuality, for example, as “Sociopathic Personality Disorder.” The “updated” 1968 DSM-II described homosexuality as “Sexual Orientation Disorder (SOD).”


XXVI, 342
ISBN (Hardcover)
ISBN (Softcover)
Publication date
2018 (January)
New York, Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, Frankfurt am Main, Oxford, Wien, 2018. xxvi, 342 pp., 4 b/w ill., 3 tables

Biographical notes

Virginia Stead (Volume editor)

Virginia Stead, EdD (2012, OISE University of Toronto), launched her series, Equity in Higher Education Theory, Policy, and Praxis (https://www.peterlang.com/view/serial/HET) with International Perspectives on Higher Education Admission Policy, Justices’ material in the 2015 U.S. Supreme Court case Fisher v. University of Texas (Austin).


Title: A Guide to LGBTQ+ Inclusion on Campus, Post-PULSE