Equity in Teaching and Learning to Meet Global Challenges of Standards, Engagement and Transformation

by Joy Barnes-Johnson (Volume editor) Janelle M. Johnson (Volume editor)
©2018 Textbook XXIV, 270 Pages


STEM21: Equity in Teaching and Learning to Meet Global Challenges of Standards, Engagement and Transformation is designed to contribute to discourses about how STEM teaching and learning can become more equitable, serving the needs of readers across the STEM educational spectrum. STEM21 is meant to problematize the status quo educational practices of STEM stakeholders including preservice and inservice teachers, district leaders, informal educators, policy makers, and the research community. While many books are narrowly targeted either for academics or practitioners, the outcome is limited dialogue between and across those spaces. This volume weaves together field-based research, personal narrative, and education theory, while providing for reflection and discussion. STEM21: Equity in Teaching and Learning to Meet Global Challenges of Standards, Engagement and Transformation is undergirded by the principle that engaged STEM education accommodates theory and practice that is equitable, rejects deficit model thinking, and is community relevant. Equitable STEM pedagogy builds autonomous pathways to learning; creates a culture of questioning and transparency; celebrates diversity of thought, habit and culture; and embraces a social justice stance on issues of race, class, gender, environmental responsibility, health, and access to resources.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author(s)/editor(s)
  • About the book
  • Advance Praise for Stem21
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Illustrations
  • List of Tables
  • List of Contributors
  • Acknowledgements
  • List of Abbreviations
  • Introduction
  • Chapter 1
  • Chapter 2
  • Chapter 3
  • Chapter 4
  • Chapter 5
  • Chapter 6
  • Chapter 7
  • Chapter 8
  • Chapter 9
  • Implications and Conclusions
  • Introduction (Joy Barnes-Johnson / Janelle M. Johnson)
  • What is Transgressive STEM Teaching?
  • Our Stories: Editors’ Positionality Statements
  • Joy’s Story
  • Janelle’s Story
  • Equity Theory into Practice: A Review of Key Frameworks
  • Aspirations Framework: How Are We Doing?
  • Opportunity-to-Learn: How Do We Address the Challenge of Serving the Underserved?
  • Key Questions for Measuring Equity in Science Teaching
  • Organization of the Book
  • Notes
  • References
  • Section One: Standards and Pedagogy: Applying Research to Practice
  • Chapter One: 21st c LEASE: Language of Equity and Access to STEM Education (Joy Barnes-Johnson)
  • Abstract
  • Editorial Reflections
  • Introduction
  • Contextualizing Equitable STEM Education as Policy
  • The New Jersey Policy Context
  • Outlining Characteristic “Clauses” of Equitable Science Teaching and Learning: Exploring Theoretical Language
  • Origins of Multicultural Approaches to Education
  • “Science for All:” A Historical Movement of Science Education Reform
  • Practitioner’s Perspective on Equitable Science Teaching/Learning: A Contemporary View
  • Conclusions and Reflections
  • Eq-STREAM Teaching Promotes ESTEAM Learning
  • Where Are We Today?
  • Discussion Questions
  • Notes
  • References
  • Chapter Two: Hip-Hop Pedagogy as a Framework to Support the Development of Science Geniuses (Edmund S. Adjapong)
  • Abstract
  • Editorial Reflections
  • Introduction
  • Educational Debt in Science Education
  • Hip-Hop Pedagogy
  • Element 1: The MC (Master of the Classroom and Master of Content)
  • Element 2: Breakdancing (Breaking)
  • Element 3: Graffiti Art
  • Element 4: DJ (Disc Jockey)
  • Element 5: Knowledge of Self
  • The Development of Science Geniuses
  • Discussion Questions
  • Notes
  • References
  • Chapter Three: Seeding the Future: Social-Justice Driven STEM Education (Christian Konadu Asante / Jacqueline Delisi / Megan Mckinley / Michael Barnett)
  • Abstract
  • Editorial Reflections
  • Introduction
  • Contexts of the Work
  • Research Methods
  • Project Outcomes
  • Teacher Outcomes
  • Student Outcomes
  • Discussion
  • Importance and Contribution
  • Discussion Questions
  • Notes
  • References
  • Section Two: Engagement: Extended Learning Opportunities
  • Chapter Four: New Roles and Relationships in Urban STEM Learning Environments: How the Peer-Enabled Restructured Classroom Enhances Equity and Access (Leslie S. Keiler / Kathleen Robbins)
  • Abstract
  • Editorial Reflections
  • Introduction
  • Theoretical Framework and Literature Review
  • Methods
  • Participants
  • Data Sources
  • Findings and Analysis
  • The Peer Enabled Restructured Classroom (PERC) Model
  • Implications
  • Discussion Questions
  • Notes
  • References
  • Chapter Five: Early Engagement in Research as a Tool for Broadening Science Participation (Cassie Xu / Robert Newton / Margaret Turrin / Susan Vincent)
  • Abstract
  • Editorial Reflections
  • Background
  • Program Structure
  • Results and Discussion
  • Lessons Learned
  • What Works
  • Increased Engagement Through Communities of Practice Around Authentic Science Research
  • Building a Community of Practice through Team-Based Learning
  • Multi-Layered Mentoring
  • Place-Based Learning
  • Final Thoughts
  • Discussion questions
  • Notes
  • References
  • Chapter Six: Promoting Middle School Students’ Motivation and Persistence in an After-School Engineering Program (Srinjita Bhaduri / Alexandra Gendreau / Varsha Srikanth Koushik / Tammy Sumner / John Ristvey / Randy Russell)
  • Abstract
  • Editorial Reflections
  • Introduction
  • Relevant Research on Cultivating STEM Interest in Youth
  • Motivation and Engagement for Low-income Youth
  • Utility Value
  • Learning/Competency in Afterschool Programs
  • Context for this Work
  • Curriculum Design
  • Research Design
  • Participants
  • Procedures and Measures
  • Results
  • Changes in Students’ Interest and Motivation
  • Perceptions about Drones
  • Engineering Perspectives
  • Engineering Design Processes
  • Conclusions
  • Building on Youth’s Interests
  • Unobtrusive Data Collection
  • Facilitating Deeper Connections to Engineering Design
  • Discussion questions
  • Notes
  • References
  • Section Three: Transformation: Transgressive Practices along the Journey
  • Note
  • Chapter Seven: Engaged Interdisciplinary Literacy: Research and Practices of Secondary STREAM (Joy Barnes-Johnson)
  • Abstract
  • Editorial Reflections
  • Introduction
  • Stages of Lesson Study
  • Recommendations for Differentiated Assessment
  • Discussion Questions
  • Notes
  • References
  • Chapter Eight: Transformative Education Pathways to Improve Health Literacy, STEM Learning, and Youth Outcomes (Gretchen E. L. Suess / Joanna Chae / Sharon Lewis)
  • Abstract
  • Editorial Reflections
  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Background of the Pipeline Program
  • Fostering a Science Identity and School Engagement
  • The Learning Environment, STEM Mentorship and Unpacking Cultural Competence
  • Conclusion
  • Discussion Questions
  • Notes
  • References
  • Chapter Nine: Institutional Capacity Building for STEM Teacher Education at an Urban Commuter University (Janelle M. Johnson / Roland Schendel / Elizabeth Mcclellan Ribble / Hsiu-Ping Liu)
  • Abstract
  • Editorial reflections
  • Introduction
  • Research Context and Review of the Literature
  • Research Methods
  • Findings
  • Discussion and Recommendations: Promising Practices
  • Final Thoughts
  • Discussion Questions
  • Notes
  • References
  • Implications and Conclusions (Joy Barnes-Johnson / Janelle M. Johnson)
  • Editorial Reflections
  • Opportunity: Positioning Equity as Transgression
  • Project Overview
  • On Heroes, Mentors and Change Agency: New Insights about Representation and Participation as Viewed Through the Theoretical Framework
  • Representation
  • Conclusions—Equity as the Fourth Dimension in STEM Education
  • Social Justice Approaches to STEM
  • Final Thoughts
  • Notes
  • References
  • Appendices
  • Appendix I
  • Appendix II: Chemistry Learning for Academic Success in Science—Core/Chemistry Lab and Academic Skills for Success in Science (C.L.A.S.S.) Rubric
  • Appendix III: COMPASS Framework of Equitable Teaching
  • Appendix IV: STEM Engagement Rubric
  • Appendix V: STEM-21 Curriculum
  • Portfolio Topics
  • Summative Assessment: STEAM Rising—Unsung Heroes of STEM Community Event
  • Index
  • Conceptual Framework Theorists Index
  • Series index

| ix →


Figure 1.1: Nested history of the development of equitable STEM education

Figure 2.1: Border crossing pedagogy

Figure 6.1: Notebook

Figure 6.2: Disasterville

Figure 7.1: Teaching slides: Science & technology

Figure 7.2: Teaching slides: Engineering & mathematics

Figure 7.3: Teaching slides: 21st century society

Figure 9.1: Population vs. Survey Respondents

Figure 9.2: Role of Finances

Figure 10.1: Network Theory of Successful STEM Student Identity Development

| xi →


Table 1.1: 21st century education legislation equity links to STEM competitiveness initiatives

Table 1.2: Banksian multicultural education: Short research timeline

Table 1.3: Applying Tanner’s equitable teaching: Responses to strategic self-assessment questions

Table 1.4: Highlighted chapter vocabulary

Table 6.1: Key features of the cohorts and settings for the two UAV curriculum deployments

Table 6.2: Planning a rescue storyboard template

Table 6.3: Research constructs, their definitions, and example prompts used in the flight logs

Table 7.1: STEM-21 unit curriculum design

Table 7.2: STEM-21 teaching and learning goals

Table 7.3: PEAS & Qs portfolio rubric

Table 7.4: Lesson plan BIG IDEAS (month 1 view)

Table 10.1: Descriptions of STEM equity indicators (by subtext)

Table 10.2: Equity—The 4th dimension of the 3D framework of STEM education, Teacher focus

Table 10.3: Equity—The 4th dimension of the 3D framework of STEM Education, Student focus ← xi | xii →

Table Appendix I.1: PERC class target behaviors

Table Appendix II.1: C.L.A.S.S. indicators

Table Appendix III.1: COMPASS framework for adult stakeholder evaluation

Table Appendix IV.1: STEM engagement rubric

| xiii →


1. Adjapong, Edmund S.—Seton Hall University

2. Asante, Christian Konadu—Boston College

3. Barnes-Johnson, Joy—Princeton (NJ) Public Schools

4. Barnett, Michael—Boston College

5. Bhaduri, Srinjita—University of Colorado Boulder

6. Chae, Joanna—Netter Center for Community Partnerships, University of Pennsylvania

7. DeLisi, Jacqueline—Education Development Center

8. Gendreau, Alexandra—University of Colorado Boulder

9. Johnson, Janelle M.—Metropolitan State University of Denver

10. Keiler, Leslie S.—York College, The City University of New York

11. Koushik, Varsha Srikanth—University of Colorado Boulder

12. Lewis, Sharon—Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania

13. Liu, Hsiu-Ping—Metropolitan State University of Denver

14. McClellan Ribble, Elizabeth—Metropolitan State University of Denver

15. McKinley, Megan—Boston College ← xiii | xiv →

16. Newton, Robert—Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory/Earth Institute, Columbia University

17. Ristvey, John—University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

18. Robbins, Kathleen—Bronx Early College Academy

19. Russell, Randy—University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

20. Schendel, Roland—Metropolitan State University of Denver

21. Suess, Gretchen E. L.—Netter Center for Community Partnerships & Department of Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania

22. Sumner, Tammy—University of Colorado Boulder

23. Turrin, Margaret—Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory/Earth Institute, Columbia University

24. Vincent, Susan—Young Women’s Leadership School of East Harlem, Retired

25. Xu, Cassie—Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory/Earth Institute, Columbia University

| xv →


This collection is the result of our wondering about why equity presents so many challenges in the STEM education community. Normalizing questions is a vitally important practice in the science world. We wanted to bring audiences to the edge of this question. We hope we succeeded in drawing out even more questions for both practitioners and researchers.

We tried to showcase theory into practice with each chapter arriving at the end, which “flips” these notions.

With sincere gratitude we extend thanks to the Peter Lang family for encouraging us to press through and bring this work to the forefront. We believe in being stretched for the sake of our students, good teaching and strong(er) communities. To our contributing authors, we sincerely appreciate the time you have invested to share your works with us as editors. We are honored to share this work with its readers.

| xvii →

Abbreviations (by chapter, in order of use)


Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics, STEM

American Association for the Advancement of Science, AAAS

English as a Second Language, ESL

Opportunities to Learn, OTL

Pre-kindergarten—grade twelve, PK-12

Chapter 1

Language of Equity and Access to STEM Education, LEASE

Technology, Entertainment, Design Talk, TED Talk

Keep Our Promise to America’s Children and Teachers Act, KEEP Our PACT ACT

Elementary and Secondary Education Act, ESEA

Individuals with Disability Education Act, IDEA

No Child Left Behind, NCLB ← xvii | xviii →

Every Student Succeeds Act, ESSA

America Creating Opportunities to Meaningfully Promote Excellence in Technology, Education, and Science, America COMPETES Act

Common Core of Data, CCD

Equitable Science Teaching and Learning, EST/L

Culturally Relevant/Responsive Pedagogy; Critical Race Pedagogy, CRP

Opportunities to Learn, OTL

American Association for the Advancement of Science, AAAS

Critical Race Theory, CRT

Next Generation Science Standards, NGSS

Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, ECLS-K

Equitable Science Teaching, EST

Partnership in Education and Resilience, PEAR

Dimensions of Success, DOS

Theory into Practice, TIP

Equitable Science Education, ESE

Science Technology Engineering Art and Mathematics, STEAM

Science Technology Reading Engineering Art and Mathematics, STREAM

Limited English Proficient/cy, LEP

Empowering Science Technology Engineering Art & Mathematics, ESTEAM

Equitable Science Technology Righting/Representing, Engineering, Art and Mathematics Teaching, Eq-STREAM Teaching

Deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA

Near Field Communication, NFC

High School Life Science Standard Numbers, HS-LS#-#

Chapter 2

Historically Black College and University, HBCU

Predominantly White Institution, PWI

Master of Ceremony, MC

Disc Jockey, DJ

Science Technology Engineering Arts Mathematics, STEAM

Bring Attention to Transforming Teaching, Learning and Engagement in Science, BATTLES

Master of Content and Classroom, MC2 ← xviii | xix →

Chapter 3

Light-emitting diode, LED

Out of school time, OST

Social Justice Driven Science Technology Engineering Mathematics, STEMJ

Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument, STEBI

Science Teaching Outcome Expectancy, STOE

Teacher Efficacy and Attitudes toward STEM, T-STEM

English Language Learners, ELL

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT

Chapter 4

Peer Enabled Restructured Classroom, PERC

Teaching Assistant Scholars, TAS

Chemistry Learning for Academic Success in Science/Core-Chemistry Lab and Academic Skills for Success in Science, CLASS

Problem-based Learning, PBL

Living Environment, LE

English Language Learners, ELL

Chapter 5

Secondary School Field Research Program, SSFRP

Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, LDEO

New York State’s Department of Environmental Conservation, NYS DEC

Palisades Interstate Park Commission, PIPC

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NOAA

Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserve, HR-NERR

New York City, NYC

The Young Women’s Leadership School, TYWLS

Frederick Douglass Academy I, FDA-I

National Science Foundation, NSF

Research One, R1

State University of New York, SUNY ← xix | xx →

City University of New York, CUNY

Principal Investigator, PI

Matrix Laboratory, MATLAB (Proprietary computer software)

Geospatial Positioning System, GPS

Chapter 6

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, UAV

Innovative Technology Experiences for Students and Teachers, ITEST

National Society of Black Engineers, NSBE

Summer Engineering Experience for Kids, SEEK

United States, US

National Science Foundation, NSF

Out of school time, OST

Accreditations Board for Engineering and Technology, Inc., ABET

Next Generation Science Standards, NGSS

Division of Research on Learning in Formal and Informal Settings, DRL

Chapter 7

Career and Technical Education, CTE

Advanced Placement, AP

Professional Learning Community, PLC

Individualized Education Plan, IEP

Next Generation Science Standards, NGSS

Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics in a 21st Century Society, STEM—21

Essential Questions, EQ

Performance products, effort, achievement, submission standards, and questions, PEAS&Qs

National Research Council, NRC

National Science Teachers Association, NSTA

Science Technology Reading/wRiting/Rhyming/Righting/Research Engineering Art and Mathematics, STR*EAM ← xx | xxi →

Chapter 8

Health Sciences Education Pipeline Program, Pipeline

University of Pennsylvania, Penn

Out of school time, OST

Every Student Succeeds Act, ESSA

Next Generation Science Standards, NGSS


XXIV, 270
ISBN (Softcover)
ISBN (Hardcover)
Publication date
2018 (October)
New York, Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, Oxford, Wien, 2018. XXIV, 270 pp., 10 ills., 18 tables

Biographical notes

Joy Barnes-Johnson (Volume editor) Janelle M. Johnson (Volume editor)

Joy Barnes-Johnson (Ph.D in urban education, Temple University; M.Ed. in curriculum and instruction; B.S. in chemistry) is the founder of EMC2 Group LLC, an education consulting firm, and currently works as a high school science teacher. Janelle M. Johnson (Ph.D. in teaching, learning, and sociocultural studies, University of Arizona; M.Ed. in language, reading, and culture; B.S. in elementary education/teaching English as a second language) is Assistant Professor in STEM teaching and learning, secondary teacher education at Metropolitan State University of Denver.


Title: STEM21