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Middle English Names of Medical Preparations

Towards a Standard Medical Terminology

by Marta Sylwanowicz (Author)
©2018 Monographs 230 Pages

Summary

This study provides a comprehensive examination of Middle English names of medical preparations found in the available medical works produced in the 14th and 15th centuries, and in a number of dictionaries. Altogether over 1600 references to medicaments have been collected. They have been divided into three major categories: general terms denoting medical preparations, terms denoting dosage forms, and terms denoting specifics. The analysis concentrates on the origin of the terms, their structure, and their distribution and presentation in texts representing different traditions of medical writing.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author(s)/editor(s)
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Table of contents
  • List of tables
  • List of figures
  • Abbreviations
  • Preface and acknowledgements
  • Chapter one: A review of previous research and an outline of the present study
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Earlier studies on the lexicon of Middle English
  • 1.3 Purpose of the study
  • 1.4 Names of medicines: classification and methods of analysis
  • 1.5 Corpus texts and editorial principles
  • Chapter two: Medieval English medicine and pharmacy
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Origins of medicine and pharmacy
  • 2.3 Medicine in Medieval England
  • 2.4 Medieval medical practitioners
  • 2.4.1 Physicians
  • 2.4.2 Surgeons
  • 2.4.3 Apothecaries
  • 2.5 Medieval English medical sources
  • 2.6 Medieval English recipes
  • 2.7 Products of pharmacy
  • Chapter three: General terms denoting medical preparations
  • 3.1 Introduction: selection and classification
  • 3.2 Old English heritage
  • 3.3 Middle English adoptions of Romance terms
  • 3.4 Distribution of the general terms denoting medical preparations in three types of texts: remedy books, surgical texts and specialised treatises
  • 3.5 Summary
  • Chapter four: General terms denoting dosage forms
  • 4.1 Introduction: selection and classification
  • 4.2 Semisolid preparations
  • 4.2.1 Ointments and salves
  • 4.2.1.1 Ointment
  • 4.2.1.2 Unguent, unguentum
  • 4.2.1.3 Salve
  • 4.2.1.4 Peripheral nouns: anointment, balm, grease, liniment, ointure, uncture, unement
  • 4.2.2 Plasters and pastes
  • 4.2.2.1 Plaster, emplaster, emplastrum
  • 4.2.2.2 Electuary, electuarium, lectuary
  • 4.2.2.3 Entrete, treat
  • 4.2.2.4 Peripheral nouns: potage, pultes, paste
  • 4.3 Solid preparations
  • 4.3.1 Powders: powder, pulvis, pulver
  • 4.3.2 Pills: ball, pellet, pill, pilule, trochisk
  • 4.3.3 Suppositories: suppository, pessary
  • 4.4 Liquid preparations
  • 4.4.1 Drink and potion
  • 4.4.2 Potage
  • 4.4.3 Syrup
  • 4.4.4 Decoction
  • 4.4.5 Liquor
  • 4.4.6 Oil
  • 4.4.7 Water
  • 4.5 Distribution of terms denoting dosage forms in three types of texts: remedy books, surgical texts and specialised treatises
  • 4.6 Summary
  • Chapter five: Terms denoting specifics
  • 5.1 Introduction: selection and classification
  • 5.2 Simplex terms and derivatives
  • 5.2.1 Main ingredient(s)
  • 5.2.2 Origin of the preparation
  • 5.2.3 Parts of the body
  • 5.2.4 Therapeutic methods
  • 5.2.5 Properties of the preparation
  • 5.2.6 Miscellaneous names
  • 5.3 Compounds and phrases
  • 5.3.1 Main ingredient(s)
  • 5.3.2 Origin of the preparation
  • 5.3.3 Parts of the body or health condition
  • 5.3.4 Properties of the preparation
  • 5.3.5 Miscellaneous names
  • 5.4 Distribution of terms denoting specifics in three types of texts: remedy books, surgical texts and specialised treatises
  • 5.5 Summary
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Appendix A
  • Appendix B
  • Index of terms
  • Series index

| 9 →

List of tables

Tab. 1: The number of the occurrences (absolute frequencies) of general terms for ‘a medical preparation’ in the analysed material

Tab. 2: General terms for ‘a medical preparation’ in the two English versions of Guy de Chauliac’s text on Anatomy: GCA1 and GCA

Tab. 3: The number of the occurrences of nouns denoting ‘a medical preparation’ in the analysed material: relative normalized frequencies (RNF per 100,000 words) are in square brackets

Tab. 4: The number of the occurrences (absolute frequencies and percentage) of nouns denoting semisolid preparations in the analysed material

Tab. 5: The use of references to salve-nouns in the two English versions of Guy de Chauliac’s text on Anatomy: GCA1 and GCA

Tab. 6: The number of the occurrences (absolute frequencies and percentage) of nouns denoting solid preparations in the analysed material

Tab. 7: The number of the occurrences (absolute frequencies and percentage) of nouns denoting liquid preparations in the analysed material

Tab. 8: The distribution of nouns (absolute frequencies) denoting dosage forms in all text-types: relative normalized frequencies (RNF per 100,000 words) are in square brackets

Tab. 9: The distribution of nouns (absolute frequencies) denoting dosage forms in two text-types: relative normalized frequencies (RNF per 100,000 words) are in square brackets

Tab. 10: The distribution of nouns (absolute frequencies) denoting dosage forms in one text-type: relative normalized frequencies (RNF per 100,000 words) are in square brackets

Tab. 11: The number of Middle English references to medical preparations in the analysed material

| 11 →

List of figures

Fig. 1: The percentage of the occurrences of medicine with three different senses in the analysed material

Fig. 2: The relative normalized frequencies (RNF per 100,000 words) of medicine with three different senses in three types of medical texts

Fig. 3: The percentage of the occurrences of nouns denoting ‘salve-like preparations’ in the analysed material

Fig. 4: The percentage of the occurrences of nouns denoting ‘paste-like preparations’ in the analysed material

Fig. 5: The percentage of the occurrences of nouns denoting ‘a medicinal powder’ in the analysed material

Fig. 6: The percentage of the occurrences of nouns denoting ‘pills’ in the analysed material

Fig. 7: The relative normalized frequency (RNF per 100,000 words) of the names of specifics in the analysed material

Fig. 8: The relative normalized frequency (RNF per 100,000 words) of the names of specifics peculiar to all texts and to one type of text (absolute frequencies are in brackets)

Fig. 9: The percentage of the occurrences of forms of different origin (Romance, Germanic, hybrid forms)

Fig. 10: The relative normalized frequency (RNF per 100,000 words) of the forms of different origin in three types of medical texts

| 13 →

Abbreviations

(a) Text corpus abbreviations

ACH Agnus Castus: A Middle English Herbal (MS 10.90, Royal Library, Stockholm)

AFS Treatises of Fistula in Ano, Haemorrhoids, and Clysters by John Arderne (MS Sloane 6, British Library, London)

AntN Antidotarium Nicholai (MS Ferguson 147, University Library, Glasgow)

AW Alchemical Waters (MS Harley 2381, British Library, London)

BG Benvenutus Grassus (MS Hunter V.8.6, University Library, Glasgow)

BS Book of Surgery (MS Harley 1736, British Library, London)

CExp Cophon, Experimentes (MS Additional 34111, British Library, London)

CHIR Chirurgie de 1392 (MS 564, Wellcome Historical Medical Library, London)

CrophB Crophill’s Books (remedies) (MS Harley 1735, British Library, London)

DPP De caritate, þe priuyte of priuyteis (MS Toshiyuki Takamiya 38, Tokyo)

FCC First Corpus Compendium (MS Corp-C 388, Cambridge)

GA Gilbertus Anglicus (MS 537, Wellcome Historical Medical Library, London)

GAC Gilbertus Anglicus, Compendium (epilepsy) (MS 19079, Huntington Library, San Marino)

GCA1 Guy de Chauliac, Anatomy (MS 12, New York Academy of Medicine)

GCA2 Guy de Chauliac, Anatomy (MS 25, Biblioteque Nationale, Paris)

GCFD Guy de Chauliac, Treatise on Fractures and Dislocations (MS 12, New York Academy of Medicine, New York)

GCM Guy de Chauliac, Chirurgia Magna (MS 336/725, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge)

GCU Guy de Chauliac, Treatise on Ulcers (MS 12, New York Academy of Medicine, New York) ← 13 | 14 →

GCW Guy de Chauliac, Treatise on Wounds (MS 12, New York Academy of Medicine, New York)

HMW Henslow, Medical Works of the Fourteenth Century (MS Harley 2378; Sloane 2584; Sloane 521, British Libray, London)

HRec Heinrich, Recipes (MS Additional 33996, British Library, London)

JBurg John of Burgundy, Plague Treatise (MS Sloane 2320, British LIbrary, London)

LChP Lanfranc, Chirurgia Parva (MS 397, Wellcome Medical Library, London)

LDM Liber de Diversis Medicinis (MS Thornton A.5.2, Cathedral Library, Lincoln)

LeechB1 Leechbook 1 (MS 136, Medical Society of London Library, London)

LeechB2 Leechbook 2 (MS 405, Wellcome Medical Library, London)

LSC1 Lanfranc, Sciencie of Cirurgie 1 (MS Ashmole 1396, Bodleian Library, Oxford)

LSC2 Lanfranc, Sciencie of Cirurgie 2 (MS Additional 12056, British Library, London)

MedCh Medical Charms (MS Additional 34111, British Library, London)

MedW Medical Works (MS Harley 2378; Sloane 2584; Sloane 521, British Library, London)

QE Quintessence (MS Sloane 73, British Library, London)

REC Recipes (MS Hunter 185, Glasgow University Library)

RS Regimen sanitatis (MS Rawlinson C.83, Bodleian Library, Oxford)

RupQ John of Rupescissa, Quintessence (MS Ferguson 205, University Library, Glasgow)

RupR John of Rupescissa, Remedies (MS Ferguson 205, University Library, Glasgow)

SCC Second Corpus Compendium (MS Corp-C 388, Cambridge)

SW1 Sekenesse of wymmen 1 (MS 47, Medical Library, Yale)

SW2 Sekenesse of wymmen 2 (MS Sloane 2463, British Library, London)

ThP Thesaurus Pauperum (MS Sloane 3489, British Library, London)

TTP Torrella, Tretece of the Pokkis (MS Sloane 389, British Library, London) ← 14 | 15 →

WBMP Wyse Book od Maystyr Peers of Salerne (MS Med. Misc. I, No. 3, College of Physicians of Philadelphia)

(b) Dictionaries

AND Anglo-Norman Dictionary

BT Bosworth-Toller’s Anglo-Saxon Dictionary

CED Collins English Dictionary

DMD Dorland’s Medical Dictionary

DMLBS Dictionary of Medieval Latin from British Sources

DMVE Dictionary of Medical Vocabulary in English, 1375–1550

DOE Dictionary of Old English

DOEC Dictionary of Old English Corpus

HTE Historical Thesaurus of English

MED Middle English Dictionary

OED Oxford English Dictionary

TOE Thesaurus of Old English

(c) Language abbreviations

Ar. Arabic

AN Anglo-Norman

CL Classical Latin

Eng. English

Fr. French

Gmc Germanic

Gk Greek

L Latin

ME Middle English

MF Middle French

ML Medieval Latin

OE Old English

OF Old French

(d) Other

adj. adjective

Details

Pages
230
Year
2018
ISBN (PDF)
9783631760017
ISBN (ePUB)
9783631760024
ISBN (MOBI)
9783631760031
ISBN (Hardcover)
9783631747797
DOI
10.3726/b14300
Language
English
Publication date
2018 (October)
Keywords
Terminology Medicine Pharmacy Medieval drugs Middle English
Published
Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Warszawa, Wien, 2018. 229 pp., 10 fig. b/w, 11 tables

Biographical notes

Marta Sylwanowicz (Author)

Marta Sylwanowicz received her Ph.D. from the University of Warsaw (Poland). Her research interests include historical linguistics, language contact and the evolution of scientific writing. In her studies she focuses on English medical terminology of the medieval and early modern period.

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Title: Middle English Names of Medical Preparations