Women in the Informal Sector and Poverty Reduction in Morocco

The City of Fez as a Case Study

by Souad Belhorma (Author)
©2019 Monographs XIV, 318 Pages
Series: Africa in Development, Volume 16


It is established that the informal sector plays an important role in the creation of job opportunities for many rural and urban people. However, there is a scarcity of academic research on the relationship between gender, informality of employment and poverty reduction in Morocco with particular reference to the city of Fez. This book focuses on investigating the contribution of women’s self-employed work in the informal sector in reducing household poverty in the city of Fez. This is done through the medium of specific framework objectives. First, the book sets out the types of women engaged in informal sector activities in the city of Fez. Secondly, it makes a situational analysis of the contribution of women’s work in the informal sector to reduce poverty in their households in this region of Morocco. Thirdly, it identifies the linkages between working as self-employed persons and emancipation of women through their participation in political and social activism in Fez and lastly, it uncovers the main difficulties impeding the development of women in self-employed activities in the informal sector and identifies the various challenges for the development of their businesses in Fez.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Contents
  • List of Figures
  • List of Tables
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • List of Abbreviations
  • Introduction
  • Chapter 1 Theoretical and Conceptual Framework
  • Chapter 2 Methodology
  • Chapter 3 Women and Self-employment in the City of Fez
  • Chapter 4 The Contribution of Women’s Self-employment in the City of Fez to Poverty Reduction
  • Chapter 5 Women’s Self-employment and Emancipation
  • Chapter 6 Difficulties and Perspectives of Women’s Self-employment
  • Conclusion and Recommendations
  • Bibliography
  • Index
  • Appendix
  • Series index

Souad Belhorma

Women in the Informal
Sector and Poverty
Reduction in Morocco

The city of Fez as a case study


Oxford • Bern • Berlin • Bruxelles • New York • Wien

About the book

The book is an intellectual and political response to Thomas Sankara’s challenge to the African people to dare to invent their own future, an echo of Patrice Lumumba’s call for them to write their own history. Exploring the history of Africa’s underdevelopment and the short-circuiting of the Pan-African movement, it argues for the revival of Pan-Africanism as a force for change and calls for a worthy successor to the Fifth Pan-African Congress.

As a background to this argument and call, the book revisits Pan-Africanism’s history and founding ideals and conducts ruthless forensic examinations of the de facto Bantustanization of much of Africa and parts of the Caribbean, the ‘alternative development’ fiascos of the late twentieth century, the contemporary ‘globalization’ and ‘democratization’ of African projects by imperialist interests, the ‘Pan-Africanisms’ of imperialism’s active collaborators and other obstructions to the decolonization of Africa and African development.

Finally, recognizing that the plights of many Afro-Latinos, Afro-Indians, Afro-Arabs and other ‘lost’ or neglected ‘tribes of Africa’ – as well as those of the victims of ‘black-empowered’ predators – call out for urgent Pan-Africanist responses, the book contains numerous start-up project ideas for action-oriented Pan-Africanists.

After a stint in academic research at the Encyclopedia Africana Secretariat in Accra, Ghana, Tony Obeng moved into development research, with appointments at the African Training and Research Centre in Administration for Development in Tangier, Morocco and the Institute of Development Studies at the University of Sussex (1970–1972). This was followed by a teaching and research position at the United Nations African Institute for Economic Development and Planning in Dakar, Senegal, under Samir Amin. He transferred to the Food and Agriculture Organization in 1980 as its focal point on policy and technical coordination with the Organization of African Unity, the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa and other intergovernmental organizations. His post-retirement activities include contributions to development conferences and seminars and to the book Towards Africa’s Renewal (2007), for which he wrote the chapter ‘Vassal States, Development Options and African Development’. His current developmental affiliations include the Third World Forum, the World Forum for Alternatives and the Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa.

This eBook can be cited

This edition of the eBook can be cited. To enable this we have marked the start and end of a page. In cases where a word straddles a page break, the marker is placed inside the word at exactly the same position as in the physical book. This means that occasionally a word might be bifurcated by this marker.


XIV, 318
ISBN (Softcover)
Publication date
2019 (May)
Women Informal Sector workers Poverty Reduction Morocco
Oxford, Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, New York, Wien, 2019. XIV, 318 pp., 13 fig. b/w, 72 tables

Biographical notes

Souad Belhorma (Author)

Souad Belhorma holds a PhD in language and English Literature from the Faculty of Letters and Human Sciences, Dhar Mehraz-Fez. She is currently an assistant professor of English studies at the Polydisciplinary Faculty of Errachidia, University of Moulay Ismail. She has authored numerous articles and in addition to her participation in different national and international conferences, she also works around issues such as poverty, gender issues, politics, and work. She holds certificates from courses on women’s rights, human rights, gender-based violence, and youth both at national and international level. She has interned in different associations, as well as human rights and women’s rights organizations. She is currently working on a research project on sub-Saharan migration, labor and gender-based violence in Morocco.


Title: Women in the Informal Sector and Poverty Reduction in Morocco
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334 pages