Nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century Germany produced a wealth of writing on gender difference. Much of this is still relevant today. This book examines how progressive women’s fiction, conduct books, and feminist texts negotiated and challenged scientific, philosophical, and religious definitions of woman. It looks at how class affected debates and at the role of fiction in reproducing and challenging ideas of gender difference. Written in an engaging and accessible style, this book will be of interest to general readers and those working in gender studies, German cultural history, German literature, women’s writing, and comparative literature.