Public Relations and Advertising Theories: Concepts and Practices

by Bayram Oğuz Aydin (Volume editor) Emine Şahin (Volume editor) Özlem Duğan (Volume editor)
©2018 Edited Collection 424 Pages


The main goal of this book is to draw attention to possible applications of public relations and advertising theories. The authors aim to present a new perspective for public relations and advertising research, claiming that it is worth looking at what theories are used in public relations and advertising space.
This book provides an overview of key studies and contributions to the theories, as well as explores how the theoretical concepts can be applied in public relations.
The practical solutions set out in this book focus on various public and private sectors. The studies analysed and the applications proposed are particularly valuable in terms of how public relations and advertising theories respond in practice. For this reason, this book will be an important work both for academics and practitioners working in the field of public relations and advertising.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • About the editors
  • About the book
  • Citability of the eBook
  • Contents
  • List of Contributors
  • Scientific Advisory Committee
  • Public Relations
  • Bibliometric Analysis on Personal Influence Model as a Public Relations Model
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 International Public Relations and Culture Studies
  • 3 Emergence of Personal Influence Model
  • 3.1 Contents of the Work Done Directly with the Personal Influence Model
  • 3.2 Methods of Direct Studies with Personal Influence Model
  • 3.3 Countries Where Studies Are Conducted Directly with the Personal Influence Model
  • 4 Evaluation and Conclusion
  • Framing Approach in Public Relations
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Framing Building
  • 3 Framing Analysis
  • 4 Application of Framing Approach in Public Relations
  • 5 Use of Public Relations Applications in Health Promotion: Framing Analysis of Health-Themed Public Service Announcements (PSAs)
  • 5.1 Use of PSAs in Health Communication
  • 5.2 Method
  • 5.3 Findings
  • 5.4 Discussion and Conclusion
  • Limitations of the Study
  • The Network Theory: An Analysis of a Non-governmental Organization’s Online Social Network
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 The Concept and Science of Network
  • 3 Network Theory
  • 3.1 Social Capital Theory
  • 3.2 Weak Ties Theory
  • 3.3 Structural Holes Theory
  • 3.4 Small World Theory
  • 3.5 Graph Theory
  • 4 Social Network Analysis
  • 4.1 Actor
  • 4.2 Tie
  • 4.3 One-Mode and Two-Mode Networks
  • 5 Network Analysis Metrics
  • 5.1 Density
  • 5.2 Centralization
  • 5.2.1 Degree Centrality
  • 5.2.2 Betweenness Centrality
  • 5.2.3 Closeness Centrality
  • 5.2.4 Eigenvector Centrality
  • 6 Public Relations and Network Theory
  • 7 A Case Study: Twitter as a Public Relations Tool for LÖSEV
  • 7.1 Data Collection
  • 7.2 Analysis of the Data
  • 8 Results
  • 8.1 Representation of the Actors
  • 8.2 Key stakeholders
  • 8.2.1 Popular and Social Stakeholders
  • 8.2.2 Mediating stakeholders
  • 9 Conclusion
  • Dialog Public Relations on Social Media: A Research Study on Twitter Pages of Universities
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Dialog Public Relations Theory
  • 3 Method
  • 3.1 Context and Participants
  • 3.2 Analysis of the Data
  • 4 Conclusion
  • Use of Crisis Communication-Reaction Strategies within the Scope of Corporate Apologia Theory: A Research Study on Cases
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Corporate Apologia Theory
  • 2.1 Denial Strategy
  • 2.2 Counterattack Strategy
  • 2.3 Differentiation Strategy
  • 2.4 Legal Attitude Strategy
  • 2.5 Apologizing Strategy
  • 3 Evaluation of Crisis Communication-Reaction Strategies over Case Studies
  • 3.1 Societal Sensitivities
  • 3.2 Not Being Up to Date about the Society
  • 3.3 Worker-Origin Crises
  • 3.4 Political Crisis
  • 3.5 Defective Product Crises
  • 3.6 Security Violation Crisis
  • 3.7 Supply Problem Crisis
  • 4 Conclusion
  • The Use of New Communication Technologies in Impression Management for Digital Publicity: A Study on Turkey Home Project
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Impression Management
  • 3 Impression Management Tactics
  • 4 Turkey Home Project
  • 5 Evaluation of Turkey Home Project in Terms of Impression Management
  • 5.1 Method
  • 5.2 Evaluation of Turkey Home Official Website
  • 5.3. Evaluation of Turkey Home YouTube Videos
  • 6 Conclusion
  • Economic Choice Theories
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 The Rational – Irrational Dichotomy in Decision-Making Theories
  • 3 Conventional Paradigm and Its Limitations
  • 4 Culture, Decision Theories, and Public Relations
  • 5 Behavioral Economics and Public Policy
  • 6 Economic Choice Theories and Their Reflections on Public Relations
  • 7 Conclusion
  • Agenda Setting Theory and an Overview on the Agenda of Turkish Media
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Literature Review
  • 2.1 Media and Its Social Effects
  • 2.2 Agenda Setting Theory
  • 2.3 Factors Determining Media Agenda
  • 2.4 Agenda Setting Theory Criticism
  • 3 Research Method
  • 3.1 Research Questions
  • 3.2 Findings on Agenda Setting
  • 3.2.1 Number of News in Newspapers
  • 7 Conclusion
  • Convergence and Public Relations
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Public Relations
  • 3 Convergence
  • 4 Convergence and Public Relations
  • 5 Conclusion
  • Advertising
  • Game Theory in Advertising
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Literature
  • 2.1 Game Theory
  • 2.1.1 Historical Development of Game Theory
  • 2.1.2 Two-Person Zero-Sum Games
  • 2.2 Two Person Zero Non-totals Games
  • 2.3 Nash Equilibrium
  • 2.4 Basic Assumptions of Game Theory and Its Relation to Advertising
  • 2.5 Use of Game Theory in Advertising
  • 3 Methodology
  • 3.1 In-Depth Interview
  • 4 Findings
  • 4.1 Participant Opinions Based on Telephone Features
  • 4.2 Interaction Situations of Two Smart Phone Brands While They Are Building Marketing Strategies
  • 5 Conclusion
  • A Study on Rhetoric Theory and Rhetoric Use in Advertisement
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Rhetoric Theory and Its History
  • 2.1 Rhetoric Language Meaning Relationship
  • 2.2 Rhetoric and Discourse
  • 2.3 Rhetoric and Communication
  • 2.3.1 Rhetoric and Advertisement
  • 3 Research
  • 3.1 The Aim and Importance of the Research
  • 3.2 Research Population and Sample
  • 3.3 Research Scope and Limitations
  • 3.4 Method of the Research
  • 3.5 Data Analysis
  • 3.5.1 Darüşşafaka “Not Really Necessary” Advertisement Analysis in Terms of Semiotics and Rhetoric
  • 3.5.2 İşBank “Cem Yılmaz and Siri One of Us” Advertisement Analysis in Terms of Semiotics and Rhetoric
  • 3.5.3 . Nescafe “Coffee Lessons with Şevket Teacher” Advertisement Analysis in Terms of Semiotics and Rhetoric
  • 4 Conclusion
  • Rereading Star Strategies in Advertisements from Marshall Mcluhan’s Perspective
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.1 Globalization and Mass Media
  • 2.2 Marshall McLuhan’s Conceptualization of “The Medium is the Message”
  • 2.3 Development of Advertising and Mass Media
  • 2.4 Evaluation of Star Strategies in Advertising from McLuhan’s Perspective
  • 3 Methodology
  • 3.1 Questions and Hypotheses
  • 3.2 Context and Respondents
  • 3.3 Data Collection
  • 3.3.1 Open-Ended and Closed-Ended Questionnaire
  • 3.4 Analysis of Collected Data
  • 3.5 Validity and Reliability
  • 3.6 Significance of the Study
  • 4 Findings
  • 5 Conclusion
  • A Research Study on the Influence of Star Strategy in Advertising on Imitation Behavior of Consumers
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.1 Advertising and Star Strategy
  • 2.1.1 Product Match-Up Model
  • 2.1.2 The Ohanian Model Concerning Source Credibility
  • 2.1.3 The Meaning Transfer Model
  • 2.1.4 TEARS Model
  • 2.2 Star Strategy and Imitation Behavior
  • 3 Methodology
  • 3.1 Questions and Hypotheses
  • 3.2 Context and Respondents
  • 3.3 Data Collection
  • 3.3.1 Open-Ended and Closed-Ended Questionnaire
  • 3.4 Analysis of Collected Data
  • 3.6 Significance of the Study
  • 4 Findings
  • 5 Conclusion
  • The Role of Ad Cognitive Load on Advertising Effectiveness: A Research Based on Low Involvement Learning Theory
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Involvement and Learning Theory
  • 3 Low Involvement Learning Theory
  • 4 Cognitive Load
  • 5 An Empirical Study from the Perspective of Low Involvement Learning Theory about the Role of Ad Cognitive Load on Ad Effectiveness
  • 5.1 Methodology
  • 5.1.1 Problem and Goal
  • 5.1.2 Sample
  • 5.1.3 Procedure
  • 5.1.4 Research Questions
  • 5.1.5 Measuring Instruments
  • 5.2 Findings
  • 5.2.1 Variability of Advertising Involvement Level
  • 5.2.2 Determination of Advertising’s Cognitive Load on Advertising Involvement
  • 5.2.3 Relationship Between Involvement and Cognition
  • 5.2.4 Relationship between Cognitive Load of Ad and Remembering Elements of Ad
  • 5.2.5 Impact Hierarchy of Low Involvement Learning Theory
  • 6 Conclusion and Discussion
  • Corporate Advertising in the Context of Social Representation Theory
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Literature Review
  • 2.1 Social Representation Theory
  • 2.2 Emergence of Social Representations
  • 2.3 Functions of Social Representations
  • 2.4 Formation Process of Social Representations: Anchoring and Objectification
  • 2.4.1 Anchoring
  • 2.4.2 Objectification
  • 3 Corporate Advertising
  • 4 Methodolgy
  • 5 Corporate Advertisements Analysis
  • 5.1 Akbank Corporate Advertisement
  • 5.1.1 Anchoring
  • 5.1.2 Objectification
  • 5.1.3 Anchoring
  • 5.1.4 Objectification
  • 5.2 P&G Corporate Advertisement
  • 5.2.1 Anchoring
  • 5.2.2 Objectification
  • 6 Conclusion
  • The Impact of Social Media Ads over Consumers’ Buying Behavior for Operational Decisions in Advertising
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 The Theory of Diffusion of Innovations
  • 3 Literature Review
  • 4 Methods
  • 4.1 Data Gathering and Analysis
  • 5 Results
  • 5.1 Generation Z’s Social Media Usage
  • 5.2 Generation Z’s Buying Behavior
  • 5.3 Social Media Ad Design for Gen Z
  • 6 Conclusion
  • Appendix
  • Advertising, Cross-Cultural Theories and Hofstede’s Cultural Dimentions Theory
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Cultural Differences and Advertisements
  • 2.1 Definition and Elements of Culture
  • 2.2 Cultural Difference Theories
  • 2.3 Cultural Differences and Advertising Studies
  • 2.4 Hofstede’s Theory of Cultural Dimensions
  • 2.4.1 Power Distance (PDI)
  • 2.4.2 Individualism and Collectivism (IDV)
  • 2.4.3 Masculinity and Femininity (MAS)
  • 2.4.4 Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI)
  • 2.4.5 Long-Term and Short-Term Orientation(STO)
  • 2.4.6 Indulgence and Restraint (IVR)
  • 3 Method
  • 3.1 Selection of Study Population and Sample, Determination of Research Model
  • 3.2 Data Collection Tools
  • 3.3 Data Analyses
  • 4 Results
  • 4.1 Socio-Demographic Characteristics
  • 4.2 Measurement of Cultural Dimensions
  • 5 Conclusion
  • A Review of the Celebrity Endorsement Models
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Who is a Celebrity?
  • 3 Why Celebrity Endorsement in Advertising Is Important?
  • 4 Main Theories on Celebrity Endorsement: How to Select the Right Celebrity?
  • 4.1 The Source Credibility Model
  • 4.2 The Source Attractiveness Model
  • 4.3 The Meaning Transfer Model
  • 4.3.1 Culture Endorsement Consumption
  • 4.4 Match-up Hypothesis
  • 5 Other Models About Selecting the Right Celebrity
  • 5.1 TEARS Model
  • 5.2 No Tears Model
  • 5.3 Q-Scores
  • 5.4 FRED Principle
  • 6 Conclusion
  • Authors
  • List of Figures
  • List of Tables

List of Contributors

Mustafa Akdağ Prof. Dr.,

Erciyes University

Faculty of Communication


Semra Akıncı Res. Asst.

Anadolu University

Communication Sciences Faculty


Aynur Arslan Asst. Prof., Dr.

Ondokuz Mayıs University

Faculty of Health Sciences


Emre Ş. Aslan Asst. Prof., Dr.

Gümüşhane University

Faculty of Communication


Ahmet Gökçe Aslaner Asst. Prof., Dr.

Beykent University

Faculty of Communication


Duygu Aydın Aslaner Asst. Prof., Dr.

İstanbul Kent University

Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences


Bayram Oğuz Aydın Asst. Prof., Dr.

Gaziantep University

Faculty of Communication


Gülşah Aydın Asst. Prof., Dr.

Yeditepe University

Faculty of Communications


Habibe Akçay Bekiroğlu Lecturer Dr.

Yıldız Technical University


Vesile Çakır Prof., Dr.

Selcuk University

Faculty of Communication


Ümmü Özlem Çerçi Lecturer

Selcuk University


Çağatay Demirel

Gümüşhane University

Institute of Social Sciences


Özlem Duğan Asst. Prof., Dr.

Uşak University

Faculty of Communication


Salih Gürbüz Asst. Prof., Dr.

Necmettin Erbakan University

Faculty of Fine Arts


←7 | 8→

Burcu Kantarcıoğlu Lecturer

Antalya Bilim University

School of Business and Social Sciences


Melis Karakuş Selcuk University

Institute of Social Sciences


Pınar Güner Koçak Lecturer

Nevşehir Hacı Bektaş Veli University


Şebnem Özdemir Asst. Prof., Dr.

Cumhuriyet University

Faculty of Communication


Emine Şahin Asst. Prof., Dr.

Gaziantep University

Faculty of Communication


Işılay Talay-Değirmenci Asst. Prof., Dr.

Antalya Bilim University

School of Business and Social Sciences


Salih Tiryaki

Selcuk University

Faculty of Communication


Nagihan Tufan Yeniçıktı Res. Asst. Dr.

Selcuk University

Faculty of Communication


Güldane Zengin Res. Asst. Dr.

Selcuk University

Faculty of Communication

guldanezengin@gmail.com ←8 | 9→

Scientific Advisory Committee

Prof. Dr. Hanife Güz, Department of Public Relations and Publicity, Faculty of Communication, Gazi University

Prof. Dr. Nurettin Güz, Department of Journalism, Faculty of Communication, Gazi University

Prof. Dr. Şükrü Balcı, Department of Journalism, Faculty of Communication, Selçuk University

Prof. Dr. Vesile Çakır, Department of Advertising, Faculty of Communication, Selçuk University

Prof. Dr. Himmet Hülür, Department of Journalism, Faculty of Communication, Abant İzzet Baysal University

Prof. Dr. Derya Öcal, Department of Public Relations and Publicity, Faculty of Communication, Atatürk University ←9 | 10→←10 | 11→

Mustafa Akdağ and Pınar Güner Koçak

Bibliometric Analysis on Personal Influence Model as a Public Relations Model


International Public Relations is the relation carried out among cultures, and its process is formed by various mixtures of different nations, international developments, priority publicities, legal/political and historical contexts (Becerikli, 2005:1). However, it should be noted that the international sector is the most difficult to manage within all areas of public relations and government relations. It is more complex, unpredictable and poses more risks than local-based public relations programs (Wakefield, 2009:94).

When the research of international scholars is examined, it is seen that they attach importance to cultural elements and they emphasize that culture can be determinant in public relations activities. According to Sriramesh, Grunig and Buffington (1992), culture is a vital component of both normative

and positive public relations theories, although it is largely ignored in many research on public relations. Therefore, before developing public relations theories, theories and research on organizational culture should be examined. Because organizational culture influences all decisions taken from the world view (including the selection of the public relations model and the development of the scheme that determines public relations and its purpose) and therefore affects public relations (Sriramesh vd., 2005:605). According to Hofstede and Tayeb, institutions are not only affected by culture but cultures also affect institutions (akt. Sriramesh vd., 1999:273).

It should be noted that between organizational culture and social culture, there are interrelated and complicated relations. Organizational culture affects the public in communication with the organization by influencing the communication structure within the organization as a whole and also influences the social culture. While this is an opportunity for local companies to know and understand the culture of the society, multinational companies should specialize and get educated in managing their relations with the people of different cultures, as stated by Sriramesh, Kim and Takasaki (Sriramesh vd., 1999:271).

According to Hofstede’s classification of culture, the perception of sharing, desire to be together, respect, cooperation and being with us are very important in societies that have a collectivist culture (Kartarı, 2016:113–118). Grunig ←13 | 14→et al. (1995) confirm that their personal influence approach has become a fully expressed model of public relations activities in Asia following repeated more testing by Sriramesh. Puspa (2007), which states that assumption of four models of public relations which are valid in all countries and are created in accordance with American culture will enter into ethnocentrism, with personal influence model and cultural values, instead of adopting and expressing clearly some notions like in China “Guanxi (building and sustaining the existing fraternity relationship among the related persons)”, in Japan “nomu (time to drink to emphasize the importance of the personal influence they have with media members)” and amae (desire to be connected to someone else’s goodness)”, in India “hospitality relations” and in Korea “hide yourself forever”, Puspa (2007) states the emergence of concepts such as referring to metaphors.

The importance of cultural elements and personal relations in public relations practices is taken into consideration. In public relations and personal influence model culture has become an important variable. It has been observed that there may be differences in public relations practices according to cultural characteristics. The tendency to maintain personal relationships, hospitality and intimate relationships, which are one of the elements of the personal influence model, is often associated with the characteristics of collectivist societies. As in Asian countries, Turkey has also a collectivist culture. Hospitality and sincerity, one of the most prominent characteristics of Turkish culture, influence the functioning of organizations and public relations activities.

In this respect, the study aimed to draw a framework of previous studies on the personal influence model. In this study, it was observed that some researchers came to the conclusion of the personal influence model while trying to investigate the public relations models used in their own countries, some evaluated especially the applications of the personal influence model, some took a critical approach to the personal influence model and some took a historical perspective on the applications of the personal influence model. The aim of this study is to make a bibliometric analysis for studies about personal influence model in the international literature, critical points of the model and subsequent studies. Bibliometric analysis is to obtain data by examining specific features of documents or publications. Some scientific communication findings have been obtained by examining studies published in academic field with bibliometry within the framework of different bibliometric features (topic, year, contributing institution, using key words, work’s number of authors, references and common references). These findings can be used to compare countries and institutions about various issues, to determine the most effective author in the related literature and to compare researches (Ulu, Akdağ, 2015:5). Findings obtained ←14 | 15→with the of bibliometric studies are able to state how related discipline shows progress, to find problems and deficiencies, and in this context, are also able to discuss corrections to-do and proposals to be submitted (akt. Yılmaz, 2017:66). With bibliometric studies, disciplines are able to get to know themselves better and researchers are able to learn about their fields (Al, Coştur, 2007:157). This method is preferred to understand personal influence model better and to evaluate studies on this model.

2International Public Relations and Culture Studies

In response to the need to establish the theoretical background of public relations discipline, Grunig and Hunt made a classification for public relations activities based on U.S. culture in 1984 and these activities are based on four public relations models: Press Agency, Public Information, Two-Way Asymmetric and Two-Way Symmetric.

In 1985, with the research fund formed by the International Business communicators foundation (IABC), under the leadership of J. E. Grunig and his friends with the excellence project on the question of “what distinguishes a perfect Public Relations Department from others and what may be the material and spiritual contributions of this department to the effectiveness of the organization”, in time, with the contributions of researchers, an attempt was made to create a universal general theory for public relations. In this context, the name of the project was determined as perfection project and the academic studies of scientists and researchers in the research team for the purpose of creating theory were compiled and published in 2002. In particular, to evaluate public relations activities in different countries, i.e. in International Public Relations practices, Vercic, L.A. Grunig and J. Grunig had set five environmental variables for public relations practitioners within the scope of the “excellence project”. These were the elements like political ideology, economic system (to cover the development level of the country economy), level of activism, culture and media system (the nature of the media environment in the country) (Sriramesh and Vercic, 2009:3).Depending on these variables, Vercic, L.A. Grunig and J. Grunig examined the case of the IABC’s “Excellence Study” on public practice in Slovenia in 1996 and reached similar conclusions about the work of 326 organizations in the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom on excellent public relations in Slovenia. However, they stated that excellent public relations in Slovenia were not used as frequently as in the West, the reason for this low number of public relations experts in Slovenia and the effected of propaganda after and during the Second World War were shown(Vercic vd., 1996:38–39). However, there was uncertainty ←15 | 16→about whether Slovenia generally represented the country on its findings. Grunig and his team’s search for perfection in public relations, focusing on a theoretical framework, particularly on research based on U.S. culture, and the concern about finding similar results in different countries, were evaluated as ethnocentrism and criticized in public relations.

Vasquez and Taylor (1999), despite the fact that many countries transferred public relations techniques from the United States to them, in this transfer, they stated that the theories, models, practices and assumptions of the United States were confusing whether they were appropriate and comprehensive in explaining International PR practices (Vasquez ve Taylor, 1999:435). In their study of comparative analysis from different countries, Culbertson and Chen (1996) stated that there was a great progress in public relations research with findings from different geographical regions such as China, Japan, India, Philippines, Singapore, Malaysia and Taiwan, Saudi Arabia, Nigeria, and countries with political, economic and cultural characteristics (Culbertson ve Chen, 1996).

The development of International Public Relations and the conduct of researchers, especially in Asian countries, have created a roadmap for the development of International Public Relations for many other researchers. One of them is Ratip Puspa. Puspa, influenced by the work carried out by Culbertson and Chen, took the focus of public relations activities different from that carried out in America in International Public Relations, especially in Asian countries. For this purpose, he prepared the article titled “Personal Influence and Power Distance: Acknowledging Local Cultures Influence in Conceptualising Public Relations Practices in Asian Countries” (2007). With this study, Puspa aimed to discuss the cultural and social factors that help the emergence and adoption of a particular model of public relations in Asian countries. In this respect, he conducted qualitative analysis of the work done in Asian countries. Puspa evaluated the findings obtained from the studies (Puspa, 2007).

The article titled “Public Relations in Kenya: An Exploration of Models and Cultural Influences” by Dane Mwirigi Kiambia and Marjorie Keeshan Nadlerb is an important study in the International Public Relations literature. In particular, on the investigation of public relations activities in South Africa and Ghana, Kiambia and Nadlerb investigated public relations practices in Kenya and public relations models that inform the cultural values that affect this practice. Many International Public Relations firms in Kenya and Kenya’s political stability compared to neighboring countries have been the reason for this research. Fifty-one Kenyan public relations practitioners and two local research assistants from independent consulting companies, non-profit enterprises, the public and private sectors were included in the research, and the research participants were ←16 | 17→reached by using the snowball technique, and online surveys were conducted with participants. As a result of the research, it was found that the public relations model, which was widely preferred by public relations practitioners in Kenya, was a personal influence model. While there was a strong relationship between the personal influence model and the femininity culture value of Hofstede, the results revealed that public relations practitioners wanted to establish strong relationships with their colleagues, supervisors, customers and important people in the public (Kiambia & Nadlerb, 2012).

In order to better understand public relations on an international scale, as Sriramesh and Vercic had stated (2009:3), the relationship between public relations and other related variables should be well established. In this context, Grunig et al. worldwide professionals applying the generally accepted principles of public relations excellence in culture and language, political system, economic system, media system, level of economic development, activism (activism) on the nature and the degree of these six proposed that the contextual conditions should be taken into account(Grunig vd. 2006:56–61). Vasquez and Taylor also expanded the scale of research by adding to Grunig and Hunt’s scale the cultural variables of Hofstede: power range, avoidance of uncertainty, masculinity, femininity, individuality and collectivism (cooperation)(Vasquez and Taylor, 1999: 436) variables. Sriramesh and Vercic (2009) reported that political system, level of economic development, activism, legal system, culture, determinants of culture, dimensions of social culture, organizational culture, mass media and images of nations, media control, media distribution, International Public Relations in the context of access to the media could be useful. In addition, Cutlip, Center and Broom (2000) stated that in International Public Relations stratification, ambiguity (low or high context), gender-based role identification, collectivism, adaptation to life, interpersonal trust, transfer of authority and other (country-specific cultural values) variables might be an economic and effective way of communicating with large and dispersed audiences of public relations practitioners through the media (Sriramesh ve Vercic, 2009: 15–16).

3Emergence of Personal Influence Model

The personal influence model first emerged with the study titled “Models of Public Relations in an International Setting” written by J. Grunig, L. Grunig, K. Sriramesh, Y.H. Huang ve A. Lyra. In this study, it was tried to measure the activities of public relations carried out in India, Greece and Taiwan to comply with the models classified by Grunig and Hunt. Although public relations practitioners refer to the values and goals of professional public relations, most of them have no ←17 | 18→application knowledge and have encountered two parameters in public relations applications, especially in countries other than the culture of Anglo. Especially in India and Greece, “personal influence” and “cultural interpretative” approaches have emerged, and these approaches can be considered as new models in the field of public relations. The researchers conducted a meta-analysis by re-evaluating the findings of the three countries in this study. The choice of these three countries is to evaluate the results of public relations research conducted in countries that are generally accepted but always have Anglo culture in terms of similarities and differences in international and different cultures. In addition, the studies of the researchers are consistent with each other in terms of method and theoretical content. In this study evaluated as American-specific public relation models and applications, they stated that two-way symmetric Public Relations model practices in these different countries could be applied, but they stated that the additional “personal influence” and “cultural interpretative” approaches could also be added to these models and would contribute to the International Public Relations literature. In this research, the personal influence model has emerged and has been discussed in the article: They have defined the positive effects of their good relationships on public relations activities with public relations experts, competent journalists, public officials working in the government, former diplomats, etc. In addition, they did not consider the personal influence approach as asymmetrically, they indicate that it could be in a symmetrical structure with the applications carried out. As a result, although public relations activities can differ from culture to culture, they emphasize that the most ideal public relations activities are two-way symmetric activities (Grunig vd., 1995).

According to the personal influence model, public relations professionals should establish a close relationship with competent individuals and organizations for the benefit of their organizations in the long term, remember important days, give gifts, organize invitations and show hospitality. In the long term, they should establish and increase its personal relationships and influence with these influential people and organizations that could seek help when organization needs them.

Triple interactivity, which makes the personal influence model of public relations functional, provides a framework for public relations practitioners and their key stakeholders to learn and implement the rules of professional interaction. The rules of interaction differ depending on various factors, such as culture, political climate, professional roles and social status of interacting individuals (Schriner, 2008:4).

After the personal influence model emerged, a large number of research was carried out to test the validity of the model. When the contents of this research were examined, the results in Tab. 1 were reached.

Tab. 1: The Studies Examined

Direct Number of Studies Related to Personal Influence Model

Number of Studies Referencing the Personal Influence Model

Personal Influence Model



←18 | 19→

When we look at the data in Tab. 1, there are a large number of research on the personal influence model. Eighteen of these studies are directly written on the personal influence model. Studies that refer to the personal influence model consist of a few paragraphs that describe the model or give examples in this model.

The adoption of the personal influence model as the fifth model of public relations and especially featuring the cultural element has enabled many researchers to test this model in different countries. However, the clustering of studies in Asian countries has been evaluated as an element of criticism over time, and studies have been conducted on the application of this model in different countries with different cultures. Although many qualitative and quantitative studies have been carried out to develop the personal influence model, critical studies have been carried out emphasizing the negative characteristics of the model and emphasizing unethical practices. In this context, first of all, in order to be able to see the literature of personal influence more seriously and to understand the nature of the studies done, Tab. 2 was created.

←19 | 20→

Tab. 2: Features of the Work Done Directly on the Personal Influence Model

Name of the Study


Type of Study Quantitative/Qualitative

Where the Study Is Performed

Publication Type

Publication Year

Models of Public Relations in an International Setting

James E. Grunig, Larissa A. Grunig, K. Sriramesh, Yi-Hui Huang, Anastasia Lyra

Qualitative and quantitative

India, Greece, Taiwan



The impact of Culture on Japanese Public Relations

K. Sriramesh, Mioko Takasaki

Qualitative and quantitative




The Models of Public Relations in India


ISBN (Softcover)
Publication date
2018 (December)
Communication Studies PR Practices Advertising Practices Personal influence model Economic choice theories
Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Warszawa, Wien. 2018. 424 p. 25 b/w. ill., 78 b/w tab.

Biographical notes

Bayram Oğuz Aydin (Volume editor) Emine Şahin (Volume editor) Özlem Duğan (Volume editor)

Bayram Oğuz Aydın holds a PhD in Public Relations and Publicity from Selçuk University. His research interests include online communities, education in public relations, online reputation management and crisis management. He is Assistant Professor at the Department of Public Relations and Publicity, Faculty of Communication, Gaziantep University. Emine Şahin holds a PhD in Public Relations and Publicity from Selçuk University. Her research interests include advertising attitude, cross-cultural communication, advertising appeals, advertising strategies and advertising research. She is Assistant Professor at the Department of Public Relations and Publicity, Faculty of Communication, Gaziantep University. Özlem Duğan holds a PhD in Public Relations and Publicity from Selçuk University. Her research interests include crisis communication, public relations training, public relations authorship and health relations. She is Assistant Professor at the Department of Public Relations and Advertising, Faculty of Communication, Uşak University.


Title: Public Relations and Advertising Theories: Concepts and Practices
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426 pages