This book presents theological approaches to the subject flight, migration and integration from various cultural and social contexts. Many of the contributors are active in places where the issue of flight, migration and integration is similarly significant as it is in Western Europe. They discuss flight, migration and integration as questions for Christian theology and diaconia. Their individual responses and views illuminate and inform the critical discussion for the challenges facing today’s world.
- Über das Buch
- Zitierfähigkeit des eBooks
- I Biblische und Systematische Theologie
- Aliens, Exodus, Borders: Biblical and Theological Perspectives on Migration
- A Contextual Study on the Reality of Migration from Biblical, Theological, and Missionary Perspectives
- Das höchste Gebot der Liebe
- Migration and Refugee Issues in Light of the Social Teaching of Jesus
- Turning Strangers into Friends? Migration, Estrangement and Hospitality
- Emigranten: Unsere Nächsten oder unsere Fernsten?
- Die christliche Auffassung vom Fremdsein
- II Kontextuelle Aspekte
- Crossing the Border – A Reflection on the Refugee Issue in Hong Kong
- Migration and Integration in India: A Theological Response
- A Theological and Ethical Approach to the Issues of Migration of Women and Children in India
- The Plight of Migrant Labourers of North Karnataka: A Case Study of the Migrant Labourers Working in Mangaluru
- Diaconal Ministry in the Indonesian Churches
- The Crosses that Filipino Women Migrants Carry
- Die Bibel und der Dienst der evangelischen Kirche für nordkoreanische Zuwanderer in Südkorea
- The Theological Significance of ,Intersubjectivity‘ in Korean Society
- III Historische Aspekte
- The Migration of Hellenistic Jews to Jerusalem, Flight and Migration of Early Hellenistic Jewish Christians from Jerusalem: Impact on Christian Theology
- The Nestorian Christian Migrant Community and its Contributions to Medicine and Science under the Abassid Caliphs of Baghdad
- Johann Amos Comenius: Die theologische Vision einer globalen Reformation und die Suche nach einer Universalsprache
- Exile, Migration, and Integration in the Context of Christian Mission: The Example of the Halle Orphan House and the Salzburg Expulsion of 1731
- Learning from the Barmen Declaration of 1934: Theological-Ethical-Political Commentary
- Zwischen Thesen, Befindlichkeit und Bekenntnis: Der Versuch eines Außenstehenden die Schweizerische Kirchenlandschaft zu verstehen
- Auszug aus der Volkskirche? Überlegungen zu einigen Hintergründen der gegenwärtigen Situation zwischen Evangelikalen und landeskirchlichem Protestantismus
The essays presented in this volume were written for the Regensburg 2018 Summer School, a theological symposium organized by the Institut für Evangelische Theologie of the University of Regensburg with a generous financial contribution provided by the DAAD (German academic exchange service), held on July 16-22. Consisting mainly of former graduate students and assistants of Professor Emeritus Hans Schwarz and also attended by colleagues from other, mainly Eastern European Universities, the Summer School has been a periodical gathering to consider the relevance of Christian theology for a variety of pressing social, cultural, and political issues on a global scale.
This year’s theme, Flight, Migration, and Integration as a Question for Christian Theology and Diaconia (Flucht, Migration und Integration als Anfrage an die christliche Theologie und Diakonie), is no exception. In a time when political, ethnic, and religious tensions have thrust issues of exile, asylum, migration, and refugee resettlement upon virtually every region of the planet, the topic could not be more urgent. Yet it is also a topic thoroughly familiar to the Judeo-Christian tradition. From biblical mandates of hospitality to the foreigner, to Jesus’ admonition of welcome to the stranger among the least of these, to experiences of exile and refuge both given and received throughout Christian history, to the accumulated wisdom of theological reflection, contemporary Christian theology has inherited a rich and abundant legacy as it considers the meaning of faith for the contemporary issues of flight and migration, as well as questions of political action.
Collectively, the contributions presented here demonstrate the richness of that inheritance. If flight, migration, and integration indeed are questions for Christian theology and diaconia, these essays offer insightful responses that illuminate and inform the critical discussion for the challenges facing today’s world. Individually, the papers reflect not only the particular expertise of each writer but also direct the discussion toward specific contexts of geography, history, ethnicity, gender and of more individual points of view of one’s Christian faith from various places around the globe. By addressing the particularities of specific cases and examples, these papers generate thoughtful theological responses to the common concerns reflected in the symposium theme.
Many thanks are due to organizations and individuals who have made possible the 2018 Summer School and the publication of these essays. We would like to express our gratitude especially to the Regensburger Universitätsstiftung ← | 10→Hans Vielberth and to the Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst (DAAD) for their generous financial support. We also are indebted to Mrs. Jutta Brandl-Hammer. Without her diligence and careful attention to the important details of organizing an international conference the symposium would not be possible. Also Mrs. Brandl-Hammer’s immense technical skills belong to the basic conditions which had to be fulfilled to present this volume, containing the contributions of the conference. Finally, the editors and authors of this volume are indebted to Dr. Stephen Hamilton and the students Deborah Fuchs and Benedikt Klammt for providing help in preparing this volume’s contents for publication.
Finally, but by no means least of all, the participants of this year’s Summer School offer our profound thanks to Prof. Dr. Hans Schwarz, who has been not only the chief organizer but the guiding spirit for these gatherings over the years. Sadly, this year’s Summer School will be the last in what has been an engaging series of conversations, and happy reunions, for his former students and current colleagues. Several of the previous symposia have coincided with milestone events in Prof. Schwarz’s life and career that have provided the opportunity for more fitting expressions of gratitude than space allows here. To those earlier tributes, I will add only a word of deep appreciation for Prof. Schwarz’s generosity of spirit. His work is represented here, along with many others who have benefitted from his guidance over the years, who testify through their own callings around the world to Prof. Schwarz’s abiding impact and lasting contribution. We, his former students, have heard, and humbly seek to emulate, the voice of the prophet Isaiah in the example of our mentor, „The Lord God has given me the tongue of a teacher, that I may know how to sustain the weary with a word“ (Isaiah 50:4).
Russell Kleckley, Easter 2018
Prof. Dr. Fedric Anilkumar
Professor in the department of Christian Ministry; Treasurer of the Karnataka Theological College; Principal of the ,Moegling Institute for German Language‘, Balmatta, Mangalore –575 001, India, email@example.com
Dr. Anna Barnau
Faculty Member, Institute of Foreign Languages, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin, Slowakei, Comenius Universität Bratislava, Malá Hora 5, 036 01 Martin, firstname.lastname@example.org
Pfr. Dr. Lucian Boloș
Pastoraler Dienst der Diakonie Neuendettelsau, Diakonie Neuendettelsau, Wilhelm-Löhe Str. 9 A, 91564 Neuendettelsau, Deutschland, email@example.com
Prof. Dr. Terry C. Dohm
Assistant Professor, Religion and German, Newberry College, 2100 College St., Newberry, South Carolina 29108, USA, Terry.Dohm@Newberry.edu
Prof. Dr. Limuel Equina
Executive Director, Association for Theological Education in South East Asia, Henry Luce III Library, Central Philippine University, Jaro, Iloilo City 5000, Philippines, firstname.lastname@example.org
Dr. Hla Aung
Executive Secretary, Global Chin Christian Federation, No.37, 4th Floor, Sanchaung Township, Yangon 11111, Myanmar, email@example.com
Prof. Dr. Matthias Heesch
Lehrstuhl für Systematische Theologie und theologische Gegenwartsfragen, Institut für Evangelische Theologie, Universität Regensburg, Universitätsstr. 31, 93053 Regensburg, Deutschland, firstname.lastname@example.org
Prof. Dr. Jang, Ho-Koang
Assistant Professor of Systematic Theology, The Graduate School of Theology, Anyang University, 708-113 Anyang 5-dong, Manan-gu, Anyang-shiKyonggi-do 430-714, Korea, email@example.com
Leiterin der Fachstelle für Frauenarbeit der Evangelisch-Lutherischen Kirche in Bayern im FrauenWerk Stein e.V., Deutenbacher Str. 1, 90547 Stein, Deutschland, firstname.lastname@example.org
Prof. Dr. Russell C. Kleckley
Associate Professor of Religion, Augsburg University, 2211 Riverside Avenue, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55454, USA, email@example.com
Prof. Dr. Thomas Kothmann
Apl. Professor für Religionspädagogik und Didaktik des Religionsunterrichts, Institut für Evangelische Theologie, Universität Regensburg, Universitätsstr. 31, 93053 Regensburg, Deutschland, firstname.lastname@example.org
Prof. Dr. Nagheoung Lim
Professor für christliche Ethik, Sungkyul University-ro 53, Manan-gu, Anyang-si, Gyeonggi-do, Korea, (Zip Code 430-742), email@example.com
Prof. Dr. Pilgrim W.K. Lo
Professor of Systematic Theology, Lutheran Theological Seminary, 50 To Fung Shan Road, Shatin, N.T. Hong Kong, firstname.lastname@example.org
Prof. Dr. Dumitru Megheşan
Dekan der Orthodoxen Fakultät der Universität Oradea, Professor für Systematische Theologie, Universitätstrasse 1, 410087-Oradea, Rumänien, email@example.com
Rev. Prof. Dr. Binsar Nainggolan ✞
Senior pastor at the „Huria Kristen Batak Protestant“ (HKBP) Church in Tebet; part-time professor of theology at HKBP Theological Seminary in Pematang Siantar. Jalan Tebet Barat Dalam X/7 Jakarta Selatan 12810, Indonesia. firstname.lastname@example.org
Prof. Dr. Craig L. Nessan
Academic Dean and Professor of Contextual Theology and Ethics, Wartburg Theological Seminary, 333 Wartburg Place, Dubuque, Iowa, 52003, USA, email@example.com
Associate Professor of Christian Theology, New Theological College, Sahastradhara Road, Kulhan P.O., Dehradun 248001, Uttarakhand, India, firstname.lastname@example.org
Prof. Dr. Mona Lisa P. Siacor
Associate Professor, College of Theology, Central Philippine University, Lopez Jaena St., Jaro, 5000 Iloilo City, Philippines, email@example.com
Prof. Dr. Hubert Manohar Watson
Professor of Systematic Theology, Karnataka Theological College, Balmatta, Mangalore –575 001, India, Registrar, KTC, Visiting Professor, UTC, Bangalore, Guest Lecturer, Mangalore University College, Mangalore, India, firstname.lastname@example.org
Prof. Dr. Rajula Annie Watson
Professor of Contemporary Theology and Ethics; Dean, Department of Women’s Studies,
The Karnataka Theological College, Mangalore, India. email@example.com
Dr. Dr. Mark William Worthing
Pastor Immanuel Lutheran Church, North Adelaide, Australia; Research Fellow, Flinders University, Adelaide: Honorary Research Fellow, Australian Lutheran College, Adelaide, Australia, Mark.firstname.lastname@example.org
Prof. Dr. Yang, Chan-Ho
Lehrstuhl für Systematische Theologie, Westminster Graduate School of logy, Korea, email@example.com
Abstract: The first part of the study depicts an Old Testament understanding of stranger, alien and temporary resident. Pannenberg’s theology and its connection to migration and the culture are described in the second part. Finally, the life and the relation between Muslims and non-Muslims is illustrated by the example of Al-Andalus in the medieval period.
The theme „migration“ is by no means a new one. The migration debate takes place in the media, politics, and social sciences as well as in the whole society. Human mobility influences the life of people all over the world. This paper presents an understanding of the Old Testament terminology concerning the strangers, aliens, and temporary residents. The concept is connected with the idea of Yahweh as the living God. The people of the Old Testament believe in Yahweh who does not only give life, but preserves and sustains it. Their first concern is to dwell as long as possible in the Promised Land, in communion with God and their friends. Thus, the destiny of creation is to participate in the eternity of God, as Pannenberg correctly stresses. Because of the tension between openness of the world (I) and self-centeredness (ego) in human behavior, the life of human beings is limited and their existence is characterized by disharmony and separateness from God. Humans are, however, social beings. They can exist in mutual interactions, and not in their opposition to others. How can, then, people live together in today’s world? This study seeks answers and insights into this complex topic.
Concerning the migration theme, Judith Gruber maintains in her study that it is very difficult to make a comparison between the Old Testament narrative of migration discourse and contemporary discourses.1 The Bible is rarely referred to in the present migration debate. Even if there is a line of reasoning in current ←17 | 18→statements, the biblical passages are often taken out of historical context and their literal setting. This chapter presents the Old Testament texts that can be connected to the migration debate.
Aliens, Foreigners, Strangers – Old Testament Terminology: The Old Testament mentions some groups of non-Israelites that are marginalized. The Hebrew language uses several different expressions to refer to those people who belong to these groups such as the „sojourner,“ or the „temporary dweller“ (גֵּר), „foreigners“ (נָכְרִי) and „foreign residents“ (תֹּשָׁבֵי). This paper does not give the possibility to list and investigate all passages connected with these nouns. Therefore, we will focus on the usage of the terms in connection with the law and covenant as well as with Old Testament eschatology and post-exilic prophecy.
There are words used in a negative sense emphasizing the otherness of those people and their separateness from the majority. Thus, the noun noḵrî often connotes a negative meaning (Gen 31:15, Ps 144:7, Isa 2:6) and it is used to characterize those people who come from another country, who are devoted to another god and have no links with the Israelites (Deut 23:20, Deut 17:15, Deut 29:22, Judges 19:12). Moreover, foreigners (noḵrî) are excluded from participation in the worship of Israel’s God, especially eating the Passover (Ex 12:43). According to Michael Guttmann, the noḵrî have still a connection with their native country or with the country they left, it means that they „persist in keeping, politically and socially,“ their former status.2 In this point the noḵrî differs from the gēr who „in reality had also come from afar, but has severed the connection with his former country“ and attempts „to become a member of the new community.“3
The term tôšāḇ, which is often translated as „stranger“ or „foreign resident,“ describes a person who originally came from some other land and has become resident in Israel, in a surrounding that is foreign to him/her, and cannot participate in the Passover (Ex 12:45). The terms tôšāḇ and gēr are often used together (Gen 23:4). While the gēr is considered to be a participant in the public worship (Lev 16:29, 17:8–6, 22:18), the tôšāḇ is less integrated into the society of the people of Israel than the gēr.4 The combination of two words is translated as ←18 | 19→„temporary resident.“5 In Genesis 23, for example, Abraham calls himself a gēr as well as tôšāḇ among the citizens of the land (Gen 23:4). Thus, between a gēr, as not possessing any land, and the owner of the land exist friendly relations.
The noun gēr (גֵּר) occurs 92 times and the verb „to sojourn, gūr“ (גּוּר) occurs 81 times in the Hebrew Bible.6 Thus, the concept of a temporary dweller was important for the authors of the Old Testament. The usage of this term is not the same. In plural, it describes either Israel’s situation in Egypt „for you were gērîm in the land of Egypt“ (Ex 22:20; 23:9) that serves to remember the fate of the people of Israel and not to oppress the sojourner gēr or it is not related to a real person, but metaphorically presents Israel’s position before God (Lev 25:23; 1 Chr 29:15).7 It refers either to the group of non-Israelites (1 Chr 22:2) or to one of the groups that participated in the Passover (2 Chr 30:25). Nevertheless, the noun gēr is mentioned mostly in singular. Johannes Pedersen maintains that a gēr was a partially incorporated sojourner of foreign, mainly Canaanite, origin and J. Spencer defines him/her as a foreigner with „no familial or tribal affiliation with those among whom he or she is traveling.“8
The word gēr is sometimes connected with the term ʼezrāḥ (חרָ֖זְאֶ), which means a native inhabitant of the land, an original citizen. It is necessary to say that an ʼezrāḥ connected with a gēr is always used in a similar meaning, for example, „gēr like ʼezrāḥ“ (Lev 24:16; 24:22); „all persons … gēr and ʼezrāḥ“ (Lev 17:15); „There shall be one law for the ʼezrāḥ and the gēr who resides among you“ (Ex 12:49). It means that these texts express the law that is valid for both, the ʼezrāḥ, a member of the people of Israel, and the gēr who does not belong to Israel. In this connection Robert Rendtorff correctly stresses that the majority of such Old Testament passages deals with cultic matters.9 Thus, in some passages the gēr is responsible for the purity of the land (Lev 18:24-30), has to bring sacrifice (Lev 1:3), cannot eat any blood as well as any part of what has died (Lev 3). According to Christiana van Houten, the aliens „are not only the resident aliens who need aid, but they are also given the right of members of the community. ←19 | 20→They are granted not only civil justice, but also the privileges of the insider on certain conditions.“10
In Deuteronomy as well as in the „Book of the Covenant“ (Ex 20:22-23:33), the gēr has a special meaning that is connected with social issues. Van Houten maintains that aliens are „strangers who are vulnerable and need protection and charity because they are out of their familial context.“11 The author of Exodus writes: „You shall not wrong or oppress a stranger, for you were strangers in the land of Egypt“ (Ex 22:20; 23:9). The gēr stays close to the social groups of orphans, widows, and the poor (Ex 22:21, 24; Deut 14:29; 16:11, 14; 24:14, 17, 19, 21), but also to the Levites (Deut 14:29; 26:11, 13).
From the above mentioned facts it is clear that a gēr is a person who lives among the people of Israel but does not belong to them, is not an Israelite. It is especially the priestly law that differentiate between those to whom the law is given and the gēr.
The Covenant and the Law: God has made promises to Abraham and his descendants regarding the land that was the territory where they lived as aliens. Furthermore, Moses received the confirmation of the covenant at Sinai (Ex 20) and a promise to reside in the Promised Land. The people of Israel experienced the slavery in a foreign land, Egypt, but on behalf of God’s faithfulness, all individuals belong to the covenant society with a land that was promised to them to be their own. Tromp rightly maintains that „within these particular events of significant theological importance … the identity of the Israelite was formed.“12 Thus, the Israelites lived in Egypt as aliens, but „the Lord was with Joseph“ (Gen 39:2-3, 21-23) and God sent him to preserve for his brothers „a remnant on earth, and to keep alive … many survivors“ (Gen 45:7).
Yahweh remained faithful to his covenant and promise of giving them the land of Canaan, the land promised to the fathers (Ex 6:6-8), „the land of their [Abraham’s, Isaac’s and Jacob’s] sojourning (מְגֻרֵיהֶ֖ם)“ (Ex 6:4). It means that the land God promised them was „the land in which they resided as aliens“ (Ex 6:4), but it will be given to them as a possession by Yahweh (Ex 6:8). In this way God makes himself known as Yahweh through the events of the exodus that involve a covenant with his people (Ex 6:4-5), deliverance and redemption from Egypt (Ex 6:6-7) and settlement in a new home, land of Canaan (Ex 6:8).13 God acts ←20 | 21→on behalf of his people, „on behalf of the alien Israel“ to lead, protect and bless them.14
The God of Israel, however, regulates the relationship of the Israelites to aliens living among them. The law of Yahweh equally applies to foreigners who live in the midst of Israel. Therefore, they must follow God’s commandments (Lev 17:8-9; 18:26; 20:2; 24:16, 22). In some passages of the Old Testament, the law applies to both, the native’ (ʼezrāḥ) and the gēr. Thus, the aliens are mentioned at the Passover and the feast of Unleavened Bread (Ex 12:19, 48-49; Num 9:14). The gēr can, if circumcised, participate in the Passover meal. The aliens can offer sacrifices (Lev 17:8; Num 15:14), can be involved in covenant ceremonies (Deut 29:10-12; 31:12), are expected to keep the Sabbath (Ex 20:10; 23:12; Deut 5:14) and the Day of Atonement (Lev 16:29).
- ISBN (PDF)
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- 2018 (Juli)
- Migration/Migration Kirche/Church Integration/Integration Konflikte, kulturelle und religiöse/Conflicts, cultural and religious Ethik, theologische/Ethics, theological Kirche und Politik/Church and politics
- Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Warszawa, Wien, 2018. 324 S.