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Current Issues in Services Management

Multidisciplinary Perspectives

by Elbeyi Pelit (Volume editor) Hasan Hüseyin Soybali (Volume editor) Ali Avan (Volume editor)
Edited Collection 164 Pages

Table Of Content

  • Cover
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Preface
  • About the editors
  • About the book
  • Citability of the eBook
  • Contents
  • List of Contributors
  • A Conceptual Evaluation of Personality and the Internal Sources of Emotion in Service Enterprises
  • Technological Factors That Effect Hospital Efficiency: A Study Based on Training and Research Hospitals in Turkey
  • The Relationship between Challenge- and Hindrance-Related Self-Reported Work Stress and Self-Reported Job Performance
  • Smart City Applications at the Local Government Structure in Turkey: The Case of Bursa Metropolitan Municipality
  • Subsidiarity Principle Reflection on the Tourism Sector
  • The Concept of Holiday and Travel in Islam: The Understanding of Halal Tourism and Investments Which Serve within the Frame of this Understanding (A Sample Study on a Chosen Pilot Facility)
  • Possible Causes of Burnout and Burnout Syndrome in Tourism Businesses
  • Organizational Justice and Reflections in Tourism Industry
  • Determination of Organizational Identification Levels of Five Star Hotels’ Employees According to Their Individual Characteristics: The Case of Antalya
  • Evaluation of the Activities of International Five Star Chain Hotel Businesses in Terms of Sustainable Tourism and the Ankara Study Case
  • List of Figures
  • List of Tables
  • About Editors

List of Contributors

Asst. Prof. Türkmen Taşer Akbaş,

Pamukkale University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, takbas@pau.edu.tr

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Halil Akmeşe,

Necmettin Erbakan University, Faculty of Tourism, halilakmese@gmail.com

Asst. Prof. Ali Avan,

Afyon Kocatepe University, Faculty of Tourism, aliavan@aku.edu.tr

Asst. Prof. Pınar Yalçın Balçık,

Hacettepe University, Department of Health Management, pyalcin@hacettepe.edu.tr

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ahmet Baytok,

Afyon Kocatepe University, Faculty of Tourism, ahmetbaytok@aku.edu.tr

Prof. Dr. Ahmet Büyükşalvarcı,

Necmettin Erbakan University, Faculty of Tourism, abuyuksalvarci@konya.edu.tr

Asst. Prof. Zuhal Önez Çetin,

Uşak University, Public Administration Department, zuhal.cetin@usak.edu.tr,

Dr. Şerif Ahmet DEMİRDAĞ

Giresun University, School of Bulancak Kadir Karabaş Applied Sciences, serif.demirdag@giresun.edu.tr

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Meral ELÇİ,

Gebze Technical University, Faculty of Business Administration, emeral@gtu.edu.tr

Dr. Ayça Karahan,

Pamukkale University, Kale Vocational School, akarahan@pau.edu.tr

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Yasin Keleş,

Ondokuz Mayıs University, Tourism Faculty, yasin.keles@omu.edu.tr

Asst. Prof. Gonca Kılıç,

Afyon Kocatepe University, Faculty of Tourism, kilicgonca@aku.edu.tr

Murat Konca, MSc

Hacettepe University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences murat.konca@hacettepe.edu.tr

Çiğdem Okşit, MSc

Afyon Kocatepe University, Faculty of Tourism, coksit@gmail.com

Asst. Prof. Zişan Korkmaz Özcan,

Süleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, zisankorkmaz@sdu.edu.tr

Gökhan Şener

Necmettin Erbakan University, Faculty of Tourism, gokhan.sener@outlook.com.tr

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Dr. Gamze Yorgancıoğlu Tarcan,

Hacettepe University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, gamze@hacettepe.edu.tr

Asst. Prof. H. Neyır Tekeli,

İstanbul Kültür University, Vocational School of Business Administration n.tekeli@iku.edu.tr

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Özcan Zorlu,

Afyon Kocatepe University, Faculty of Tourism, ozcanzorlu@aku.edu.tr

Ali Avan, Özcan Zorlu, and Ahmet Baytok

A Conceptual Evaluation of Personality and the Internal Sources of Emotion in Service Enterprises

1 Introduction

Personality traits and expression of emotions are the basic elements that reveal individuals’ role in social group and community. Hence, in a social atmosphere, individuals exhibit some attitudes and certain behaviors through their personality traits. In literature, instant reactions and changes of an individual are called emotion; conversely, these reactions and changes are called personality traits if they are continuous. Researches on determining common emotions and reactions of individuals in a certain period brought out five-factor personality traits, which are very popular today. Those five-factor personality traits also identify basic emotions when they are considered as instant (transient) reactions.

Individuals verbalize their emotional interactions with certain concepts such as fear, anger, happiness, and sadness. Because of those interactions, several physical, psychological, and behavioral reactions are formed in the individual. When individuals are exposed to more intense emotional experiences, they are more psychologically affected. However, each person experiences emotional interactions at a different level and intensity. This difference resulted from the effects of experiences, biological structure and personality traits. For instance, it is not expected that a self-confident individual who makes a speech at a conference will experience emotional states such as anxiety, concern, etc. On the other hand, a person who has a lack of self-confidence could experience those emotional states more intensively even though he/she is well prepared to the subject. Although the quality of the speech lay on a variety of factors such as individuals’ personality traits, compositions of speech, and preparation period, it is highly affected by the individual’s previous experiences. This person could improve his/her speech’s quality by concerning negative elements and his/her emotional states in previous experiences.

This chapter explains the importance of determining the internal sources of emotion and revealing the role of personality traits and emotions at this process in service organizations. Services have distinct characteristics like intangibility, inseparability, perishability, and heterogeneity. These characteristics effect the interaction between guests and employees directly. Especially, the inseparability ←11 | 12→characteristic of services, which refers simultaneously to production and consumption of services, is one of the specific atmospheres in which fundamental emotions occur because this atmosphere embrace communication and interaction between guest and staff due to service delivery process. This atmosphere involves intense social interactions, and it is an unavoidable fact that personality traits and emotions directly affect interpersonal communication, interaction, and individual’s likelihood of success.

Within this context, firstly, personality and personality traits are explained, and then the notion of emotion and the relationships between emotion and personality have been discussed. Later on, we made some descriptions about the internal sources of emotion, and due to its relation to the subject, we discussed emotional contagion, which is very important at the interactions observed in service atmosphere. We assume that this chapter will contribute to the current literature by explaining social and behavioral dimensions of certain interactions in service atmosphere, by revealing similarities and differences between personality traits and emotions, and by focusing internal sources of emotion.

2 What Is Personality?

The concept of personality is etymologically derived from the Latin word “personalis”, Medieval Latin word personalitas, and then French word personnalité, which refers to distinctive character. Today personality means “quality or fact of being a person” (Online Etymology Dictionary, 2019). Another research defines the term as mask and states that the concept is derived from the Latin word “persona”. Thus, personality involves the studies about masks that people wear (Wilderdom, 2019). In spite of the existence of extended literature, today, there is not a universal agreement about the meaning of personality…. Most people tend to equate personality with social success (i.e., having a “good or popular personality”, or having “a lot of personalities”) and to describe personality by a single dominant characteristic (i.e., strong, weak, or polite) (Luthans, 2011: 125). APA – American Psychological Association – (2019) verbalize personality as individual differences in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving. Some of the other definitions on personality are as follows:

A characteristic way of thinking, feeling, and behaving (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2019).

The dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to the environment (Allport, 1937: 38).

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Certain, steady, and consistent characteristics of an individual (Özkalp & Kırel, 2011: 72).

Distinctive communications/interactions of an individual established with the internal and external environment (Cüceloğlu, 1991: 404).

Personality mostly observed in people interactions comprise moods, attitudes, opinions, and behavioral characteristics (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2019). The concept of personality composes of uniqueness, distinctiveness, consistency, constancy, and stability. Uniqueness and distinctiveness refer to differentiated attitudes and behaviors of a person from others. Combination of distinctive characteristics (psychical, psychological) of people also forms his/her personality. In other words, each person is different and unique to others. At this point, similarities of situations, and reaching similar results as a result of similar behaviors exhibited for similar situations are important determiners. On the other hand, stability is the quality of a person, which is exhibited in the long term. Namely, it refers regularity to attitudes and behaviors. Although some visible characteristics of people such as dressing and eating preferences could be changed in time, stability emphasizes the remaining unchanged of fundamental characteristics (Özkalp & Kırel, 2011: 72–74).

Personality is a mediator between intangible behavior motives and tangible behaviors. Each attitude becomes an actual behavior by passing through a specific human personality filter. In addition, personality is not a type of behaviors in a certain time. It is a combination of past, present, and future. The personality, which has a characteristic that wishes to maintain the individual’s habits and wants to comply with the future, is composed of traces of the past, current practices, and the main tendency of the future. Thus, personality is the observable aspect of the behavior of the individual in the life process (Zel, 2001: 22). Although personology can trace its ancestry to the ancient Greeks, who proposed a kind of biochemical theory of personality, the systematic study of personality as a recognizable and separate discipline within psychology may be said to have begun in the 1930s (e.g. Allport, 1937; Murray, 1937; Stagner, 1937; cited by Cloninger, 2009: 3; Encyclopedia Britannica, 2019).

Personality is a complex structured concept, due to its relation to psychical and psychological characteristics. The basic elements of personality could be ranged as genetic and physical factors (ability, skeleton, height, eye color, etc.), social factors (culture, learning, etc.), domestic factors (respect, love, authority, freedom, etc.), social structure and social classes – castes – (education opportunities, lifestyle, thinking, tendency, etc.), geographical and psychical factors (climate, nature, etc.), and other factors (communication instruments, grown-ups group, order of ←13 | 14→birth, etc.) (Zel, 2001: 26). The complexity and being affected by different factors make personality an interdisciplinary phenomenon that is related to psychology, philosophy, physiology, anthropology, and social psychology. Within this context, the notion is searched/discussed from different perspectives (the psychodynamic perspective, the trait perspective, the learning perspective, the humanistic perspective, the cognitive perspective, and the biological perspective) as given in Tab. 1–1. Each approach has developed over time with contributions from major theorists and researchers, and while the perspectives have sometimes influenced one another, they have taken different tactics toward a global theory of personality and in guiding the observations that researchers make and the interventions that practitioners implement (Cloninger, 2009: 3).

Tab. 1–1: Major Perspectives in Personality. Source: Cloninger, 2009: 4

Perspective

Major concepts

Contributors

Biological

temperament, evolution, adaptation, altruism, sexual jealousy, heredity, neurotransmitter pathways, cerebral hemisphere function

D. Buss, Eysenck, J. A. Gray, C. R. Cloninger, Kagan

Cognitive

expectancy, self-efficacy, outcome expectation, schema, cognitive person variable, personal construct, reciprocal determinism, modelling, constructive alternativism, life narrative

Mischel, Bandura, Kelly, Beck

Humanistic

self-actualization, creativity, flow, spirituality, personal responsibility, freedom, choice, openness to experience, unconditional positive regard, acceptance, empathy, real self, hierarchy of needs, peak experience, positive psychology

Maslow, Rogers, Seligman,

Csikszentmihalyi

Learning

reinforcement, punishment, stimulus, response, conditioning, extinction, shaping, discrimination learning, generalization, situation, act frequency, basic behavioural repertoire, labelling, gradients of approach and avoidance

Skinner, Staats, Dollard and Miller

Psychodynamic

libido, conflict, id, ego, superego, defence mechanisms, Oedipal conflict, fixation, repression, attachment, object-relations

Freud, Jung, Adler, Erikson, Horney, Klein, Sullivan, Chodorow, Westen, Kohut, Kernber

Trait

trait, type, facet, factors, Neuroticism/Emotional Stability, Extraversion

Allport, Cattell, McCrae and Costa

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The concept of type, which is one of the most debated concepts in personality theories, simply means “a certain personality character or a specific personality model”. As seen in Tab. 1–2, studies reviewing personality in terms of types use a variety of parameters such as individual’s behaviors, psychical characteristics, psychological characteristics, and other characteristics (Şimşek et al., 2011; Zel, 2001).

Tab. 1–2: Personality Typologies. Source: Adapted from Şimşek et al., 2011; Zel, 2001

Researchers

Typologies

Personality Trait

Jung

Extroversion-Introversion

-Introversions: shy, not take to floor, angular but value his/her mates, preferring to think before act.

- Extroversions: Like group activities, talkative, friendly, do not like loneliness, energetic, demonstrative, act impulsive, easy speakers about themselves and their thoughts.

Sensation-Intuition

Thinking-Feeling

Judgment-Perception

Eysenck

Melancholy

Peevish, anxious, strict, cautious, pessimistic, tight-lipped, a-social and silent.

Choleric

Feisty, restless, aggressive, fast-paced, pansy, attacking, optimistic and active

Phlegmatic

Passive, careful, thoughtful, comfortable, easygoing, controlled, reliable and calm

Sengen

Social, extroverted, talkative, ready to answer, practical, lively, carefree and leader

Freidman and Rosenman

A type

Moving, fast walking, fast eating, fast talking, impatient, trying to do two jobs at the same time, giving importance to numbers, dashing, competitive,

B type

Not tolerating time, patient, self-praise, playing for fun not to win, self-indulgent, comfortable, do not like limited-time works and do not like to rush, mild-mannered.

Seagal

Mental dimension

Emotional dimension

Psychical dimension

Kretschmer

Pyknic

Cheerful, extroverted, social, happy to live, realistic, sympathetic, warm friendship, openhearted, softhearted, not grudging, optimistic, modest.

Asthenic

Calm, stubborn, introverted, feisty, loner, impassive, self-enclosed and less sociable, asking questions, idealistic, sarcastic, vindictive and vengeful, pessimistic.

Athletic

Lasting, has a leadership potential, showboat, likes sports and adventure.

DysplasticDysplastic

Sheldon

Endomorph

Comfortable, friendly, tolerant, well-tempered and cheerful

Mesomorph

Moving, aspiring to be a leader, involved in sports and other activities, like a competition, usually good-natured

Ectomorph

Distressed, shy, overly emotional, socially weak, loves to travel, not usually compatible

Today, theories and typologies developed within the context of personality, not only used at communal living processes but also used in businesses especially for the employment of staff and managers. Further, they are one of the vital instruments for developing customer-oriented strategies and tactics in the business environment.

3 Personality Traits and Big Five

Researches on personality traits (PT) mostly focus on the structural differences and similarities among individuals that are stable and observable patterns of behaviors (Chamorro-Premuzic & Furnham, 2005: 3). By focusing on structure of people, in particular psychological structure, some psychologists assert that they are looking for the essence of being a human; in other words, what it means to be an individual human being (Boeree, 2006: 6). Allport (1927: 286) defines trait as “a tendency to reaction which when measured with reliability demonstrates an independence of other variables”. Trait as a theoretical construct strives to answer, “What are the basic units of personality?” (Cloninger, 2003: 183). Scientific studies on personality traits formalize the tendency of using trait descriptors and support the idea that there are generalities in personality. Hence, individuals with similar temperaments could be grouped together (Matthews, Deary & Whiteman, 2009: 8). PT studies also emphasize individual differences in characteristics and measurement of these traits through tests (Cloninger, 2003: 183). In extended literature, scholars identified many personality traits such as dominance, sociability, independence, conscientiousness, hostility, helpfulness, self-esteem, emotional stability, and ambitiousness (Ajzen, 2005: 1). Those traits are the habits of people that are developed to satisfy psychological needs (Reiss, 2008: 4).

Kreitler and Kreitler (1990: 5), in their cognitive study, label the trait approach as the commonest, oldest, and most characteristic approaches to personality, dating back to Greek philosophers and Indian thinkers. Similarly, Buss and Plomin (1984: 5) assume that PT is the outcomes of millions of years’ evaluation process. A variety of applications such as individual or organizational psychology use PT to research/investigate and/or theorizing any contextual ←15 | 16→←16 | 17→situation (Joshanloo & Nosratabadi, 2009: 215). In these studies, the five-factor model (FFM) has become prominent. FFM is accepted as a broad/comprehensive personality construct that is demonstrated in more specific traits (Judge & Bono, 2000: 752). Furthermore, Costa & McCrea (1990: 369–370) have laid emphasis on that FFM, which was truly comprehensive and it constituted the basic dimensions of personality. At the beginning of personality trait approach, some scientists have measured personality with neuroticism, extraversion, and openness. McCrea & Costa (1987: 85–87; 1989: 23–24), in their study validating FFM, added two more dimensions (agreeableness and conscientiousness) to this structure and asserted the nature of FFM with the most important adjectives as follows:

a) Neuroticism/emotional stability: Calm–worrying, at ease–nervous, relaxed–high-strung, secure–insecure, comfortable–self-conscious.

b) Extraversion: Sociable, affectionate, talkative, fun loving, friendly.

c) Openness to experience: Original, creative, daring, imaginative, broad interests.

d) Agreeableness: Soft hearted, forgiving, sympathetic, acquiescent, selfless.

e) Conscientiousness: Careful, conscientious, reliable, well organized, hardworking.

In FFM, task- and goal-directed behaviors explained with conscientiousness, which is closely related to the control of motives, while extraversion and agreeableness comprehensively sum up traits of an interpersonal nature. Additionally, neuroticism predicates instability in emotions whereas openness to experience is relevant to mental health and/or experiences (John, Caspi, Robins, Moffitt & Stouthamer-Loeber, 1994: 161–162).

In literature, neuroticism is substantially associated with negative affectivity (Judge, Heller & Mount, 2002: 531), which is a classic dimension of personality and consider individual differences in the inclination to construct, perceive, and feel reality as being problematic, threatening, and difficult (Rolland, 2002: 8). Eysenck (1990) conceptualizes neuroticism with a broad-spectrum that is ranging from normal personality to neurotic ones (Boeree, 2006: 5). Neuroticism occurs in case of emotional instability and absence of positive psychological adjustment. Thus, fearful, anxious, and depressed people are generally characterized by neuroticism and they are inclined to withdrawal behaviors in organizations (Judge, Maktocchio & Thoresen, 1997: 746). Tellegen uses “negative emotionality” for neuroticism in consideration of behavioral and cognitive aspects, and describes neuroticism as the tendency to experience some negative effects such as anxiety, depression, anger, and embarrassment. Neurotic people ←17 | 18→may adopt irrational beliefs and must cope with disruptive emotions much more (McCrea & Costa, 1987: 88).

The other dimension at FFM extraversion is associated with sociability, activity, dominance, and tendency to experience positive emotions by McCrea and Costa (1989: 23). John et al. (1994: 161) describe extraversion with “active, assertive, energetic, enthusiastic, outgoing and talkative” adjectives. Eysenck (1990) conceptualizes extraversion as the balance of the brain in terms of inhibition and excitation. Here, inhibition is that the brain calms itself down, while excitation is that the brain waking itself up (Boeree, 2006: 5). Extravert people are sociable, unshy, strongly motivated to get in touch with others, and willing to take social responsibilities. Contrary to this, introverts are considered as unsociable, shy, and unwilling to get in touch with others, avoiding taking responsibility (Buss & Plomin, 1984, 81). However, the extraversion trait of a person cannot be directly observed, due to its inseparable integrity and remarkable effects on the behaviors and tendencies (Nettle, 2007: 36). Block postulate that extraversion people could have some negative attributes or behaviors such as mania, overly frenetic, or socially dominant in the case of too high extraversion (McAdams & Walden, 2010: 52). In this sense, extraversion qualify talkative but not verbose, and confident but not dominating people (Ladd et al., 2007: 153).

Openness to experience (hereafter openness), the third dimension of FFM, is closely related to individual’s mental and experiential life (John et al., 1994: 162; John, Naumann & Soto, 2008: 138), and refers to creative, curious, and cultured people (Salgado, 1997: 30). In McCrea and Costa’s study (1987: 87) openness was best characterized with original, imaginative, broad interests, and daring adjectives. As a self-report measure of ability, openness correlates with actual intelligence and psychometric intelligence but also differs from psychometric intelligence since openness is assessed as a personality factor (Chamorro-Premuzic & Furnham, 2005: 57–58). DeNeve and Cooper (1998) emphasize that openness is a “double-edged sword”, since it inclines individuals to feel bad and good more deeply (Judge et al., 2002: 531).

In FFM, agreeableness represents one’s relations with others (Barrick, Mount & Gupta, 2003: 50) and refers to concern and sensitiveness toward others and their needs (Tonetti, 2011: 41). McCrea and Costa (1987: 87) contextualize this trait with antagonism, which refers to set oneself against others. Antagonism, like a dark side of agreeableness, is clarified with cognitive (mistrustful and skeptical), affective (callous and unsympathetic), and behavioral (uncooperative, stubborn, and rude) aspects by them. Contrary to this, agreeable people are characterized as caring, empathic (Kalshoven, Den Hartog & De Hoog, 2011, 353) friendly, pleasant (Rhodewalt, 2008: 3), altruistic, gentle, kind, sympathetic, ←18 | 19→and warm (Boeree, 2006: 12). Although the high level of agreeableness is desired and/or preferred, societies with fully agreeable individuals cannot compete with others due to the agnostic people (living in other societies) are inclined to use coercion to success their aims and goals (Havill, Besevegis & Mouroussaki, 1998: 50).

The last dimension of FFM, conscientiousness is characterized with a variety of desirable adjectives such as dutiful, scrupulous, hardworking, ambitious, energetic and persevering, and willingness to achieve (McCrea & Costa, 1987: 88). Thus, conscientious people tend to act dutifully, motivated through achievement and self-disciplined, and persist in a planned behavior (Brandstätter & Opp, 2014: 517). Conscientiousness, which may develop as a compensatory trait for low intelligence (Chamorro-Premuzic, Dissou, Furnham & Bales, 2005: 119), also embodies some problems such as becoming a workaholic, exclusion of familial or social interests, rigid self-discipline, lack of spontaneity, over-perfectionism, preoccupation with order/rules/schedules/organization, in case of becoming highly conscientious (Widiger, Costa & McCrea, 2013: 296).

4 What Is Emotion?

Emotional reactions happen with the influence of many components such as behaviors, motivational states, physiological response patterns, and emotions or conscious emotional experiences (Frenzel & Stephens, 2013: 14; Frijda, 2009: 1449). One of the main reasons for a clear definition of emotion cannot be made is that the concept contains many different and intangible components. When the theoretical basis of emotion is examined, it is understood that the explanations are made in accordance with different theories because of its distinctive structure. Magda Arnold’s (1960 as cited in Scherer, 1988) Appraisal Theory, which systematizes many of the other processes that affect Core Affect Theory; Ekman’s (1992) Basic Emotion Theory, which is also discussed by Russell (1991), refers to the basic emotions of human nature, each consisting of a small number of qualitatively different repetitive manifestation components; Izard’s (1971, 1972, 1977) Differential Emotion Theory, which deals with the relationship between emotion processes and the other substrates of personality, contains considerable evidences that emotions are physiological, psychological, and meaningful and cognitive processes differentiated based on environmental interactions and human nature, and they occur in a common evaluation system with different components.

Emotion is a notion, which is complicated, and is not a simple phenomenon and reflects an ever-changing personality-environment relationship. This ←19 | 20→relationship becomes an emotion source when individuals strive to biologically keep alive and engage in personal and social values and objectives. Thus, the emotional experience cannot be understood solely by what happens inside the person and the brain. The on-going relationships with the evaluated environment have also a significant role in the process (Lazarus, 1984: 124). The emotion cannot be defined only with electro-physiological indications, emotionally occurring signals, or motor skills. So, these components must be taken into consideration altogether: (a) the experience or conscious feeling of emotion, (b) the processes that occur in the brain and neural system, and (c) observable expression patterns (especially face-based ones) (Izard, 1977: 4).

Kleinginna and Kleinginna (1981: 355) define emotion as a set of interactions between subjective and objective components, which are being moderated by a neural-hormonal system that a) can affect arousal, pleasure-displeasure experiences; b) can produce cognitive processes such as meaningful perceptive effects and evaluation phases; c) can activate prevalent physiological adjustments that provide arousal; d) can usually pave the way for exploratory, goal-driven, and adaptive behaviors. Plutchik (1982: 551), in light of psycho evolutionary structural theory, defines emotion as follows: “an emotion is an inferred complex sequence of reactions to a stimulus, and includes cognitive evaluations, subjective changes, autonomic and neural arousal, impulses to action, and behavior designed to have an effect upon the stimulus that initiated the complex sequence”. The emotion is a complicated reactional pattern, which includes experimental, behavioral, and psychological components that are related to personally considerable subject or state. The nature of emotion is associated with the value attributed to the situation. For instance, if the situation involves threat, fear is likely to occur, and if the situation involves condemning, shame is likely to occur (APA dictionary of Psychology, 2015: 362).

Each emotion has an inherently adaptive function and a specific distinctive neural substrate, a characteristic neuromuscular-expressive pattern, and a distinct subjective or phenomenological quality. Thus, each basic emotion is a system consisting of these three components and their interactions. Defining of a situation or a process as an emotion distinguishes it from other phenomena groups such as cognition and locomotion. Mentioning of a process as “cognition” doesn’t mean a combination of perception, relational learning, thought, memory, or all of these and other cognition types. The same applies to the term “emotion”. Each of the emotions as interest, joy, surprise, anger, and contempt has a crucial and distinctive motivational characteristic and each adds its own special quality or significance to life experiences. However, the generation of a specific emotion in a combination of emotions does not modify its basic or genotypic ←20 | 21→specialty, but its interactional effect and the consequent observable behavior may occur in different patterns (Izard, 1972). The differentiation of behavior due to the interactive nature of the emotion indicates that the emotion is inferential. In fact, Plutchik (1982: 534) states that emotion is a hypothetical construct and is inferential for different situations and evidence. Similarly, Ekman (1999: 45) also suggests that emotions differ in terms of appraisal, antecedent events, probable behavioral response, and physiology.

The cognitive activity is prerequisite for emotion. Individuals struggle to comprehend whether in the form of a primitive evaluative perception or an entirely differentiated symbolic process when appraising an emotion. Emotion is not just physiological arousal, though such arousal is one of the traditional descriptive attributes. Emotional interaction is the case when an individual compares the situation that produces emotion with his/her own physical and social conditions and the bodily state (Lazarus, 1984). Individuals tend to classify similar situations/phenomena into the groups, reply to these classifying groups in similar behavioral patterns, and closely associate similar situations/phenomena with one another. The emotional response categories that occur at the end of this tendency are important in terms of understanding how individuals associate similar phenomena and components with each other in their memories. An emotional state, such as anger or sadness, can be thought of as an emotional response category that binds experiences in memory and action and triggers behavior. Emotion category members are likely as idiosyncratic as people’s learning experiences (Niedenthal & Halbenstadt, 2000: 169).

Plutchik (1980, as cited in Kleinginna & Kleinginna, 1981), based on his assumptions about the theory of emotion, states that a) emotions are triggered by external stimuli, b) emotional expression is typically directed toward specific stimulus in the environment by which it has been aroused, c) emotions may be activated by a physiological state, d) there are many natural objects in the environment, and e) an emotional state may occur after an object become observable and evaluable. Furthermore, he emphasized that although there are different ways of expressing emotions, each emotion has a certain expression pattern in terms of quality. Bourne and Ekstrand (1979, as cited in Kelinginna & Kleinginna, 1981) indicate that emotion has two primary dimensions: first, the qualitative dimension of pleasant–unpleasant and the second, the quantitative dimension of intensity. Hereunder, unpleasant emotional states will act as negative reactions, while pleasant ones as positive. The stronger or more intense the emotion, the greater the motivation of approach or avoidance. Each emotion varies as for the degree of similarity and reveals different reactions in changing levels of intensity and arousal (Izard, 1972; Plutchik, 1980, 1982).

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For a better understanding of emotion, it is necessary to know how emotions are related to or differ from similar concepts such as affect, mood, etc., which have similar meanings. Affect denotes the integrative value attributed to the emotional state. Emotion is related to feelings about reactions to certain situations (Guerrero, Andersen & Trost, 1998: 5). It should be considered that emotion and mental states are used synonymously, but both concepts vary in terms of process and intensity. Emotion is more dominant than the mental state with respect to its intensity. Emotions are usually accompanied by distinct facial expressions, but moods, generally, are not indicated by distinct expressions (Frenzel & Stephens, 2013: 8; Lazarus, 1984: 125; Robbins & Judge, 2013: 99).

Individuals express the emotional interaction they experience with specific words such as fear, happiness, sadness, excitement, etc. Emotional reactions occur in response to situations like loss, frustration, danger, or success. These reactions are shaped by physiological changes (in cardiovascular activity, blood flow, and temperature), expressions in the face, voice, and body (e.g. laughing, crying, and cringing); and shifts in behavioral intentions and tendencies (Scherer, 2013: 8).

Izard (1972) classified emotions as fundamental emotions. These are interest, joy, surprise, distress, anger, disgust, contempt, shame, and fear. Although emotions are expressed in some basic concepts, it is possible to state that each emotion has a different meaning for each person and the environmental and internal interaction is decisive in the nature of the emotion. Izard (1977) emphasized that anger is sometimes positively related to survival, and more often with the maintenance of personal integrity and the correction of social injustice. Fear is also related to survival and, with shame, helps to the correction of disruptive aggression and protection of social order. Therefore, Izard states that instead of saying that emotions are positive or negative, it is more accurate to classify emotions as those that lead to entropy in terms of quality, or those that reveal constructive behavior. Ekman (1999), in his classification of basic emotions, brings out that each emotion must be respectively tackled in terms of its antecedents, appraisal, probable behavioral intentions, and physiology. Consequently, Ekman emphasized that like anger, disgust, sadness, contempt, amusement, pride, satisfaction, and contentment, each emotion has different results.

5 Personality and Emotion

Although, absence of a consensus on a common definition, American Psychological Association (APA) defines personality as “the enduring configuration of characteristics and behavior that comprises an individual’s unique adjustment to life, including major traits, interests, drives, values, self-concept, ←22 | 23→abilities, and emotional patterns”. Additionally, emotion is defined as “a complex reaction pattern, involving experiential, behavioral, and physiological elements, by which an individual attempt to deal with a personally significant matter or event (Vandenbos, 2015: 362, 782). As seen in two definitions, anyone who needs to talk about personality must speak of emotions; in other words, he/she needs to consider the personality to refer what is emotion. In this sense, we could postulate that personality and emotion are interchangeable concepts in terms of language using, especially when someone defines personality traits as interpersonal relations. For instance, some fundamental emotions like friendly, hostile, gloomy can refer both an emotional state and long-term personality trait (Plutchik, 1980: 18) based on its intensity and duration (Lucas & Diener, 2008: 478).

Reisenzein and Weber (2009: 54), in their study, assert that personality descriptors consist a sub-set directly or indirectly referring to emotions. To investigate emotion-related inter-personal differences, most of the researchers focus on relatively stable emotional dispositions, which are also accepted as descriptive dimensions of personality. Hence, stable and general emotional dispositions are species of personality traits, namely they are at the center of personality taxonomies. What is interesting is that four traits in FFM (neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, and openness) are substantially related to emotional dispositions (Reisenzein & Weber, 2009: 57–59). In other words, many adjectives as emotional dispositions fundamentally indicate certain traits in FFM. For instance, researchers need to use nervous, calm, etc. to describe neurotic people, and represent extraversion with adjectives like talkative, friendly, etc. In a broader perspective, neuroticism, which means experiencing negative emotions, is essentially a broad emotional disposition, while extraversion and agreeableness comprise emotional dispositions as central sub-components; and openness to experience is related to a specific emotional disposition as well as to emotional differentiation (Reisenzein & Weber, 2009: 60). As mentioned earlier, the intensity and duration of the pattern play a decisive role to label any adjectives as emotion or personal trait. Within this context, anxiety can be thought of as describing a temporary mood or an enduring personality trait. If anxiety occurs transiently, someone can call this an emotion; if this situation represents stability and durability, then someone can consider this as a personality trait. Furthermore, personality traits and emotions have some relations to one another. Thus, personality traits are derived from basic/fundamental emotions, and emotions can be used to describe the relations among those traits (Plutchik, 1980: 19–21).

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6 Internal Sources of Emotion

Emotions are the product of an individual’s own internal processing on the basis of his/her own prior history and biology. Emotional reaction activates neural and neuroendocrine effector systems and leads to a variety of consequences in short or long term (McEwen, 1995 as cited in Brown & Kozak, 1998: 146).

Each emotion has neurophysiological, neuro-muscular-expressive, and phenomenological components. Emotions also have distinctive motivational value and meaning, and like as all functions of the organism, they have neural and biochemical substrates. These substrates are generally seen as neuroanatomical and biochemical bases of emotions. One of the main constructs of the internal source of emotion is limbic lobe. Limbic lobe has many interconnections with brainstem reticular formation, which serves as an amplifier in emotional processes, and neocortex, which unifies the emotion. These structures also have interconnections with hypothalamic emotion centers and autonomic neural systems. The neocortex is the ultimate mechanism in emotional processes. The neocortex integrates functions of emotion, cognition, and motor systems. Thus, it affects an individual’s psychobiological unity and functional integrity (Izard, 1972: 25).

The somatic nervous system mediates emotion activation. This activation has significant effects on self-regulation of the emotions by the reason of the somatic nervous system is under voluntary supervision. From this point of view, a person who needs to suppress anger in order to avoid the potential consequences of its expressions alleviates emotions by inhibiting his/her face and body movements or relaxing the muscles. In emotion activation, an external or internal event reveals new sensorial data by changing the level and order of electrochemical activity in the nervous system. The interaction here can be seen as an interpersonal process (a memory, image, thought, and proprioceptive impulse) or a person–environment interaction. The alteration in the pattern of neural activity determines which facial expressions are affected. The sensorial response of the face constitutes the subjective experience of a certain basic emotion. Once an emotion is activated, glandular-hormonal, cardiovascular, respiratory, and other life systems have a role in amplification and regulation of emotion (Izard & Buechler, 1980: 169).

Izard (2010: 366) defined six categories of phenomena that activate emotions based on his qualitative analyses:

1. Innate and classically conditioned stimuli and other events/situations that present challenges or opportunities.

2. Cognition, including memories, images, and appraisal processes.

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3. Social interactions and affiliation.

4. Goal-related activities.

5. Ongoing emotion–cognition interactions.

6. Spontaneous changes in neurobiological systems/processes.

Frijda (1993: 359) states that the emotional experiences of individuals come out of effect, awareness toward the cognitive evaluation of events, action readiness, and bodily arousal. Izard (1977: 5) emphasized that the differences between physiological-arousal-cognitive model and neurosensory model of emotion activation have crucial implications for the science of emotion. The physiological-arousal-cognitive model, which explains the effects of the nervous system and sympathetic arousal on emotion occurrence, asserts that cognitive processes have an effect on emotion generation. The neurosensory model describes the somatic nervous system and electro-cortical arousal and considers the emotion as an organized process, which have meaningful experiential and motivational attributes.

Lazarus (1984: 124) also demonstrated the effect of cognitive processes on the formation of emotions and asserts that cognition is necessary for emotion. Hence, individuals cannot give the meaning to the events until they interpret the respective significance of them in terms of a primitive appraisal perception or a differentiated symbolic process. Thus, emotional interaction begins after this interpretation. Although emotion is never completely divorced from meaning, it can also occur prior to the next thought. An experienced emotion can pave the way for meaning (Lazarus, 1999: 8). Izard (2007: 272) suggests that evoking a new discrete emotion is a non-linear process involving a dynamic interaction between emotion feeling and cognition. Therefore, the basis for the activation of a new emotion experience is the flow of ongoing emotions and cognition in the individual. A new emotion derives from the processing of new information by neural systems or networks that underlie emotion and cognition. In the activation of a new basic emotion, the causal cognitive information can only have a perception of the ecologically valid stimulus. Considering the principle of enduring emotion–cognition interaction, the perception will be affected by ongoing emotion. Therewithal, Izard (2009: 5) emphasized that perceptive and conceptual processes and consciousness are more like effects of emotions than sources of their origin.

Emotional Contagion

Based on theories of sources of emotion and explanations in this chapter, in order to answer the questions about why it is so important to determine the internal ←25 | 26→sources of emotion and how emotional interaction/activation occurs especially in the service environment, explanations about emotional contagion (EC) are also included in this section. Though emotional interaction and physiological and biological change in individual involve the technical and medical aspects of the subject, it should be also considered the social and behavioral dimensions of the aforementioned interaction.

One of the components that trigger emotional interaction is EC. Individuals can be a focus on instant emotional reactions in their social encounter. This reaction flow stem from the instant observations toward faces, voices, postures, and nonverbal behaviors of other individuals. In addition to this, unconscious and automatic mimics may cause individuals to feel like as other individuals (if we see a person smiling, even if we do not know why he/she smiles, we may also involuntarily smile) faced in the encounter (Hatfield, Cacioppo & Rapson, 1992: 151). According to Schoenewolf (1990: 50), EC is a process, which involves the effect of an individual or group on the emotional states and behavioral intentions of other individuals or groups on a conscious or unconscious basis. Hatfield, Cacioppo and Rapson (1994: 4) define EC as psychophysiological, behavioral, and social phenomena. The reason for this is that EC involves mental and emotional images and innate and subsequently acquired stimulus traits.

Most theorist would agree that emotions are packages, which includes conscious awareness, facial, vocal, and postural expressions, neuro-psychological, autonomic nervous system activity, and instrumental behaviors. Individuals in the environment affect these packages. Reflex and behavioral reflections, which occur based on person or situation and physically unconsciously, are instantaneous. For this reason, emotional stimuli can be seen as a tool that triggers awareness (Hatfield et al., 1994: 4).

Hatfield, Cacioppo, and Rapson (1993: 96) states that emotions can be determined with mimicry (an adaptation of the body into the environment) and feedback. Mimicry includes clues of ongoing facial expressions, voices, postures and movements, and instrumental behaviors. Similarly, feedback involves reactions based on subjective emotional experiences, which stem from any instant facial expression, voices, traits, and movements. Doherty (1997: 133) indicates that instant mimicry contributes to the EC by the way of facial expressions, postures and movements, and instrumental behaviors.

The emotional expressions of an individual produce a corresponding experience in other individuals because of EC has been considered a multilevel phenomenon (Vijayalakshmi & Bhattacharya, 2012: 364). EC consists of conscious and subconscious processes (Kelly & Barsade, 2001: 106). Transferring of emotions from an individual to another is an occurrence revealing by ←26 | 27→subconscious emotional processes. This type of EC process has a meaning of reciprocal experiencing emotions by the way of psychological ties and being imitated of other individuals’ facial expressions and instrumental clues. As for the conscious EC, it is related to observing the emotions of other individuals and choosing the most appropriate emotional state for them (Hennig-Thurau, Groth, Paul & Gremler, 2006: 59).

Considering that the interaction in the service environment in terms of transferring emotions to others and consequently consisting of attitudes and behaviors, the role of EC in here appears more specifically. Tsai (2001) states that during the customer–employee interaction in the service environment, the mimics, verbal expressions, and movements of the employees are imitated by the customers. Hennig-Thurau et al. (2006), in their study of relationships in the service environment in the context of EC and emotional labor, ascertained that the authenticity of emotional labor has a positive effect on emotional states of the customers. Pugh (2001) indicates that customers can catch the acts of the employees by means of emotional cognitive processes during the service encounter.

Human brain associates the emotional data it receives with each other and each of the emotional components acts on and is acted upon by the others (Hatfield et al., 1993: 96). In other respects, the transaction, which is related to the interaction that happens when individuals are affected by others, is not the transfer of emotions, but the transfer of postures and behaviors. In other words, the individual can act as he/she would not normally want to do with the influence of others.

Ittelson (1973: 16) mentioned that the first response of an individual to the environment is emotional. Accordingly, the direct emotional effect arising in response to a situation guides the instructions that are formed because of the subrelations established with the environment. Küller (1991) stated that the emerging emotion is not a phase but that it contains a quality, which evolves at every stage in an emotional process. When individuals are subjected to more intense emotional experiences, they come under more influence psychologically. Psychological changes related to emotions arise by a trigger of the nerve cells in the limbic system. It is believed that certain regions of the limbic system (like the intermediate cerebral region above the hypophysis) are connected with nerve cells that are directly related to emotions, especially to stronger emotions such as fear, anxiety, anger, and stress (Amedeo, 1993: 86).

The responses of individuals toward variables in different environments are caused by the differentiation in their emotions (Chen & Hsieh, 2011: 10058). Mehrabian and Russell (1974) explained this interaction between emotions and ←27 | 28→behaviors in three dimensions (being satisfied or not, the level of being aroused, and being dominant or resigned). The reaction that arises because of individuals’ interactions with their environment represents the emotional responses that momentarily occur in the inner world of individuals. As the subject matter environment leads to such emotional reactions in individuals, it is described by expressions like stressful, peaceful, lively, or disgusting (Russell & Mehrabian, 1978; Russell & Pratt, 1980).

The state of being satisfied or not can be directly understood either from individuals’ own words or from their facial expressions such as smiling or pouting. The state of being aroused refers to various emotional states between drowsing and getting overexcited. Although individuals’ state of being aroused consists of an inner process, it can also be determined by such components as facial expressions, by verbal expressions, or by the quality of expressions and speech tone. The state of being dominant or not refers to the penetration of the opposite party by the effect which is desired to be created through stimulants because of the interactions between individuals and stimulants. The state of being dominant or not can be understood by the position taken by the bodies of individuals, and it emerges independently of the state of being satisfied or not or being aroused (Mehrabian & Russell, 1974: 18–19).

Conclusion

This chapter examined the personality traits and the internal sources of emotion in the service context. The major contribution of this study is the assertion of the relationship between personality and the internal sources of emotion. The interaction of individuals with their environment can commonly be characterized by their personality and emotional states in our framework.

Though we confirm Izard’s (1977) framework regarding the definition of emotion, we think that personality traits have also a significant role along with conscious feeling of emotion, brain and the neural system, and observable expression patterns, in the generation of emotions. The reason is that emotions reflect an ever-changing personality-environment relationship.

Many adjectives as emotional dispositions fundamentally indicate certain traits in FFM. For instance, researchers need to use nervous, calm, etc. to describe neurotic people and represent extraversion with talkative, friendly, etc. adjectives. Additionally, we could postulate that personality and emotion are interchangeable concepts in terms of language using, especially when someone defines personality traits as interpersonal relations. So, some fundamental emotions like friendly, hostile, gloomy can refer both an emotional state and ←28 | 29→long-term personality trait based on its intensity and duration as Plutchik (1980) states.

Emotions are physiological, psychological, meaningful, and cognitive processes differentiated based on environmental interactions and human nature. It is possible to state that each emotion has a different meaning for each person and the environmental and internal interaction is decisive in the nature of the emotion. Therefore, we inferred that emotions are related to attribution of interaction and individuals’ prior experiences and ways of perceiving emotional state are decisive.

In our framework, one of the components that stimulate the internal sources of emotion is EC. In the service environment, where emotional interaction is intense, EC is an important indicator of emotion generation. For instance, an introverted guest in a restaurant may not have difficulty in adapting to the environment by the help of a friendly attitude of the staff. Thus, emotions that will make him/her feels satisfied is more likely to occur.

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Gamze Yorgancıoğlu Tarcan, Pınar Yalçın Balçık, Murat Konca, and Ayça Karahan

Technological Factors That Effect Hospital Efficiency: A Study Based on Training and Research Hospitals in Turkey

1 Introduction

Within the scope of this study, firstly the efficiency levels of 45 training and research hospitals were compared with the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA); and subsequently, the Tobit Regression Model was established in which the transformation of the efficiency score obtained as a result of DEA was the dependent variable and the inputs used in DEA were the independent variable. Thus, the effect of the input variables used in DEA on the efficiency score was tried to be revealed.

DEA is a non-parametric method based on mathematical linear programming that uses each observation to calculate a discrete unit boundary formed by a series of the Pareto-efficient decision-making unit. As a result of this, it focuses on each observation instead of focusing on the estimation of the means and parameters (Charnes et al., 1994). In the parametric methods, when associating the independent variables with the dependent variables, a certain functional pattern such as regression equations or production functions is in question. However, no restriction can be placed for the researchers about the variable in DEA, which is a non-parametric method, and this is the main reason for preferring DEA (Charnes et al., 1994).

The basis of DEA has been laid by the article “The Measurement of Productive Efficiency” written by Farrell (1957). Inspired by this article, Charnes et al. (1978) wrote the article “Making the Efficiency of Decision Making Units” and thus DEA has been introduced to the academic community as a non-parametric analysis method. Charnes et al. (1978) have suggested the constant return to scale form of DEA in their article. Then, Banker et al., (1984) have enhanced the study of Charnes et al. (1978) and have formed the variable return to scale form of DEA by suggesting models for technical and scale inefficiency. The difference between these two DEA forms may be stated as follows:

In the constant return to scale form, it is assumed that the increase in the input (or inputs) will make a proportional change in the outputs. For example, if a hospital plans to increase ←37 | 38→its human resources by 5 %, it is assumed that this increase will make an increase of 5 % in the outputs of the hospital. In the variable return to scale form, it is assumed that the increase in the input (or inputs) will make a change at the increasing or decreasing rates in the outputs. For example, if a hospital plans to increase its human resources by 5 %, it is assumed that this increase will make an increase of less than 5 % in the outputs of the hospital” (Narcı, 2012).

Besides, the constant return to scale form demonstrates the total productivity as it includes both pure technical productivity arising from completely managerial performance and the scale productivity caused by the size of the decision-making unit. The variable return to scale form demonstrates only the pure technical productivity without including the scale productivity since it ignores the size factor. As a result of this, the number of productive decision variables in a study in which the variable return to scale is used is higher than the number in the constant return to scale form (Narcı, 2012).

In a study, in which DEA was used as the method, firstly, it should be decided whether an input-oriented or output-oriented approach is adopted. The following statement may be stated for the difference between these two approaches: “The input-oriented models reveal the most suitable input combination to be used to produce a certain output combination in the most productive way and the output-oriented models reveal that the most possible output combination can be obtained with a certain input combination” (Şahin, 1998). As the managerial control in health services is on the inputs rather than the outputs, the DEA studies conducted on the healthcare field are mostly input-oriented (Kocaman et al.,2012; Ayanoğlu et al., 2010). For this reason, the input-oriented DEA approach was adopted in this study. In addition, as the efficiency levels of the decision-making units regarding only the pure technical productivity was intended to be examined, the variable return to scale form of DEA was used. Based on this, it may be asserted that the main method of the study is the input-oriented and variable return to scale DEA.

Within the scope of the study, the Tobit (censored) regression analysis was used as the second phase analysis. When the Tobit regression model is established, the efficiency score obtained as a result of DEA was the dependent variable and the inputs used in DEA were the independent variable. They were also added to the model as independent variable whether or not the training and research hospitals were affiliated with the Ministry of Health. The transformed DEA score was obtained due to the application of the transformation to DEA score ((1/DEA Score)-1). In this way, the decision-making units that had the efficiency score of 1, that is the units found as productive, were left-censored. In case the transformed DEA score was taken as the dependent variable in the Tobit ←38 | 39→regression, the effect of the dependent variables that had a statistically significant effect on this score, on the unproductiveness was revealed.

The data of the variables used in the study were the data of 2015 and DEA was performed with DEA-SOLVER software and Tobit regression was performed with Ewievs9 software.

2 Results

In the study, the total number of beds, the total number of specialist physicians, the number of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging devices were taken as input and the bed occupancy rate, the total number of operations, the number of having CT and MR imaging, bed turnover rate, and the number of ambulatory examinations were taken as output variables. Tab. 2–3 shows these variables.

Tab. 2–3: The Variables Used in DEA

Inputs

Outputs

Total Number of Beds

Bed Occupancy Rate

Total Number of Specialist Physicians

Total Number of Operations

Number of CT Devices

Number of CT Imaging

Number of MR Devices

Number of MR Imaging

Bed Turnover Rate (Day)*

Number ofAmbulatory Examinations (Outpatient Clinic)

*As it was a desired situation that this output variable was low, its opposite was used in the analysis.

The study was conducted with a total of 45 training and research hospitals whose data could be accessed. Based on DEA, the ones whose efficiency score was 1 is considered as productive and the ones whose efficiency score was less than 1 was considered as unproductive. Thirty three hospitals (73.3 %) were found as productive according to the variable return to scale DEA results based on the input-oriented scale; whereas, 12 hospitals were found as unproductive (26.7 %). The mean productivity of the hospitals included in the study was 0.955±0.098 (Tab. 2–4).

Tab. 2–4: The Results of Input-Oriented and Variable Return to Scale DEA

Training and Research Hospitals

DEA Score

Training and Research Hospitals

DEA Score

Hospital1

1

Hospital25

1

Hospital2

1

Hospital26

1

Hospital3

1

Hospital27

1

Hospital4

1

Hospital28

1

Hospital5

1

Hospital29

1

Hospital6

1

Hospital30

1

Hospital7

1

Hospital31

1

Hospital8

1

Hospital32

1

Hospital9

1

Hospital33

1

Hospital10

1

Hospital34

0.99262

Hospital11

1

Hospital35

0.98267

Hospital12

1

Hospital36

0.94335

Hospital13

1

Hospital37

0.90004

Hospital14

1

Hospital38

0.90004

Hospital15

1

Hospital39

0.8753

Hospital16

1

Hospital40

0.82271

Hospital17

1

Hospital41

0.78753

Hospital18

1

Hospital42

0.77186

Hospital19

1

Hospital43

0.77186

Hospital20

1

Hospital44

0.64509

Hospital21

1

Hospital45

0.58217

Hospital22

1

Mean

0.955

Hospital23

1

Standard Deviation

0.098

Hospital24

1

Tab. 2–5 shows the Tobit regression analysis results, which is the second phase analysis of the study. Accordingly, the variable of number of MR devices at the confidence level of 95 % had a statistically significant effect on DEA score. The number of CT devices, the total number of specialist physicians, the total ←39 | 40→number of patient beds, and whether or not the hospitals were affiliated did not have a statistically significant effect on DEA score.

Tab. 2–5: Tobit Regression Analysis Results

Variables

Coefficient

Details

Pages
164
ISBN (PDF)
9783631806364
ISBN (ePUB)
9783631806371
ISBN (MOBI)
9783631806388
ISBN (Book)
9783631803851
Language
English
Publication date
2019 (December)
Tags
Administration Business Management Human Resources Tourism Marketing Strategies Organizational Behavior Innovation Financial Performance Marketing
Published
Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Warszawa, Wien, 2019. 164 pp., 3 fig. b/w, 17 tables.

Biographical notes

Elbeyi Pelit (Volume editor) Hasan Hüseyin Soybali (Volume editor) Ali Avan (Volume editor)

Elbeyi Pelit is Professor at the Faculty of Tourism, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar (Turkey). <B> Hasan Huseyin Soybali</B> is Associate Professor at the Faculty of Tourism, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar (Turkey). <B> Ali Avan</B> is Assistant Professor at the Faculty of Tourism, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar (Turkey).

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