The Little Qanun of Ibn Sina

Little Model of the Great Qanun

by Kadircan Hidir Keskinbora (Author)
©2020 Monographs 218 Pages


Ibn Sina wrote many books on various scientific branches, many of which are on philosophy, religion, music, medicine, astronomy, physics, and natural sciences. Some sources state that the number of books he has written is over 240; 153 of these have been discovered. Among his valuable books, the two most well-known books are «al-Shifa», which deals mostly with philosophy, and the five-volume «al-Qānūn Fī al-Tibb», which is a complete medical encyclopedia. The Little Qanun is the model of «al-Qānūn». The idea of publishing this book struck the author’s mind when he thoroughly dealt with Avicenna’s views and thoughts. It is hard to imagine such discoveries were generated more than one thousand years ago.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Foreword
  • Foreword (for Bahçeşehir Univ. edition)
  • Second Edition Foreword (for Bahçeşehir Univ. edition)
  • Preface by the BAU Rector
  • Preface by the Dean of the BAU School of Medicine
  • About the author
  • About the book
  • Citability of the eBook
  • Contents
  • Introduction
  • [2A] (Contents)
  • [4A] The first article
  • Chapter one: Regarding the creation of the human being
  • Chapter two: The organs that build up the human body
  • Individual organs
  • Bones
  • The nerves (the nervous system)
  • The muscles
  • The arteries
  • The veins
  • The fat
  • The sensory organs
  • The skin
  • Hair
  • The nails
  • Chapter three: It is about the structure of the body from compound systems
  • The brain
  • The eyes
  • The tongue
  • The ears
  • The heart
  • The lungs
  • The thorax
  • The stomach
  • The intestines
  • The spleen
  • The liver
  • The bile
  • The kidneys
  • The bladder
  • The testes
  • The penis
  • The uterus (womb)
  • The joints
  • Chapter four: The sections of medical science and their explanations
  • Chapter five: Brief information related to the pulsing of the vessels
  • Chapter six: Brief and basic information related to urine and urethra
  • Chapter seven: Conditions of secretions and excretions of the body (elimination of waste)
  • [17A] The second article
  • Chapter one: The energy of the grains
  • Chapter two: Regarding types of meat
  • Chapter three: Regarding the energy of fish
  • Chapter four: Regarding milk, cream, butter, and cheese (dairy)
  • Chapter five: Regarding vegetables
  • Chapter six: The basic energy in other vegetables
  • Chapter seven: Benefits of fresh fruit
  • Chapter eight: The benefits of dried fruit
  • Chapter nine: The benefits of oils
  • Chapter ten: The benefits of fragrant plants
  • Chapter eleven: The benefits of fragrances
  • Chapter twelve: Regarding fabrics
  • Chapter thirteen: Regarding spices
  • Chapter fourteen: Regarding vinegar, bodha, olives, pickles, and jams
  • Chapter fifteen: Regarding water, snow, and ice
  • Chapter sixteen: Regarding wines
  • Chapter seventeen: Regarding sherbets and drinks
  • Chapter eighteen: Regarding medicine made from various plants
  • Chapter nineteen: Regarding boiled and fried food
  • Chapter twenty: Regarding sweets
  • [24A] The third article
  • Chapter one: This chapter includes sports activities that strengthen the body like wrestling, and less strenuous activities (exercises) like running and walking
  • Chapter two: Regarding (steam) bathrooms
  • Chapter three: Regarding eating and drinking
  • Chapter four: Regarding sleep and wakefulness
  • Chapter five: Regarding sexual ability
  • Chapter six: Regarding mental state
  • Chapter seven: Regarding the signs of pregnancy and its management
  • Chapter eight: Regarding lactating mothers and the management of lactation
  • Chapter nine: Regarding the management of children till puberty
  • Chapter ten: Regarding the management of the human being from the age of 14 till the end of life11
  • [28A] The fourth article
  • Chapter one: Regarding headaches, migraines, and dizziness and hot and cold headaches
  • Chapter two: Regarding the feverish “sersam” illness
  • Chapter three: Regarding the illness of melancholia
  • Chapter four: Regarding the epilepsy “Sar’a” illness
  • Chapter five: Regarding love
  • Chapter six: Regarding strokes
  • Chapter seven: Regarding paralysis, numbness, shivering, and wet cramping
  • Chapter eight: Regarding colds
  • Chapter nine: Regarding eye inflammation
  • Chapter ten: Regarding sight weakness and tear flow
  • Chapter eleven: Regarding ear pain
  • Chapter twelve: Regarding nose pain
  • Chapter thirteen: Regarding lip cracks
  • Chapter fourteen: Regarding teeth, gums, and molar teeth pain
  • Chapter fifteen: Regarding mouth and teeth blisters
  • Chapter sixteen: Regarding polishing the teeth and freshening up the mouth
  • Chapter seventeen: Regarding the uvula, the tonsils, and diphtheria
  • Chapter eighteen: Regarding the comment that occurs in the throat
  • [36A] The fifth article
  • Chapter one: Regarding coughing, catarrh, and pleurisy
  • Chapter two: Regarding asthma
  • Chapter three: Regarding palpitations
  • Chapter four: Regarding blood in the saliva
  • [37B] The sixth article
  • Chapter one: Regarding stomach weaknesses
  • Chapter two: Regarding nausea
  • Chapter three: Regarding colic
  • Chapter four: Regarding hiccups
  • Chapter five: Regarding diarrhea
  • Chapter six: Regarding dysentery
  • Chapter seven: Regarding gripes
  • Chapter eight: Regarding abdominal worms
  • Chapter nine: Regarding liver pains
  • Chapter ten: Regarding spleen pains
  • Chapter eleven: Regarding jaundice
  • Chapter twelve: Regarding kidney pains
  • Chapter thirteen: Regarding bladder diseases
  • Chapter fourteen: Regarding anus diseases
  • [46A] The seventh article
  • Chapter one: Regarding penis diseases
  • Chapter two: Regarding the appearance of pre-seminal fluid and prostatic secretion
  • Chapter three: Regarding testicular diseases
  • Chapter four: Regarding hernia
  • Chapter five: Regarding womb diseases
  • Chapter six: Regarding sexual intercourse
  • [47A] The eighth article
  • [47B] The ninth article
  • Chapter one: Regarding hair diseases
  • Chapter two: Regarding clearing the face from spots and freckles
  • Chapter three: Regarding herpes and fungal diseases
  • Chapter four: Regarding the whiteness of the skin (vitiligo)
  • Chapter five: Regarding itching
  • Chapter six: Regarding measles, small pox, urticaria, and impetigo
  • Chapter seven: Regarding warts
  • Chapter eight: Regarding swellings
  • Chapter nine: Regarding the tumors that occur around the nails
  • Chapter ten: Regarding the injuries around or at the edges of the nails and on the heels
  • Chapter eleven: Regarding burns
  • Chapter twelve: Regarding poisons
  • Chapter thirteen: Regarding blood phlebotomizing (bloodletting)
  • Chapter fourteen: Regarding cupping
  • Chapter fifteen: Regarding diarrhea and enema (clyster)
  • Chapter sixteen: Regarding vomiting
  • [51B] The tenth article
  • Chapter one: Regarding daily fever
  • Chapter two: Regarding the fever that happens every day with sputum
  • Chapter three: Regarding the fever that comes in intervals from the bile
  • Chapter four: Regarding the fever that comes for only one or two days
  • Chapter five: Regarding blood fever that covers the whole body
  • Chapter six: Regarding compound fevers
  • Chapter seven: Regarding daily occurring fever


In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. God, help me finish this book in good faith. Praise be to the most wonderful words said by God, and His blessing be on His subject and prophet Muhammad in the purest and most gracious way.

The interest for science is bestowed (given) by Mighty God to those of maturity and integrity; and to those with pure hearts, clear eyes, and the self-confidence to carry on the work.

Mighty God has chosen you as the best and most mature man to be endowed with wide scientific knowledge. As a man who values science, and a benevolent teacher, may you get in return even more than you have given to your students in knowledge and affection.

Upon Your instructions, my publications on medicine will be written in clear expressions, concise explanations, and language that would be easily understood by everyone, at all times. They will provide benefits for all conditions and ailments. With God’s help I will fulfill the mission that has been entrusted to me. Success is God’s will.

This book consists of ten articles.

←35 | 36→←36 | 37→

1 Kanun-u Sagir looks like a little model, not a summary of al-Kanun fi’t-Tibb. This introduction has been organized similar to his introduction of his main book (Great Qanun) where Ibn Sina addresses himself.

[2A] (Contents)2

The first article

This article is about the creation of the human being, the structure of the body, the sections (components) of the science of medicine, the pulse, urine, and information about the other organs. There are seven chapters:

1. The creation of the human being

2. The structure of the human body from separate organs (parts)

3. The structure of the body from compound pieces (organs in groups)

4. The different sections of the science of medicine – their descriptions and importance

5. The flow of blood through the vessels

6. The urine

7. Information about the other parts of the body

The second article

This article is about the function and energy of food, beverages (drinks), and clothes (fabrics). There are twenty chapters:

1. Bread and bread types


ISBN (Hardcover)
Publication date
2020 (January)
Avicenna History of Science History of Medicine Medicine
Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Warszawa, Wien, 2020. 218 pp., 1 fig. col., 112 fig. b/w.

Biographical notes

Kadircan Hidir Keskinbora (Author)

Kadircan H. Keskinbora is Full Professor of Ophthalmology. He received his Ph.D. in History of Medicine and Medical Ethics from Istanbul University. He published many articles on Ophthalmology as well as on History of Medicine and Medical Ethics. The author made comprehensive studies on scientific and philosophical successes of Avicenna and searched how to transform the findings into further discoveries. He received the Avicenna Prize of France in 2016. He is the Founder Dean of the School of Medicine of Namik Kemal University and is now Head of the Department of History of Medicine and Medical Ethics of Bahcesehir University in Istanbul.


Title: The Little Qanun of Ibn Sina
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220 pages