by Fatih Türkmen (Volume editor)
©2020 Edited Collection 340 Pages


A compilation of current academic studies on the tourism sector of Turkey, the 23 chapters of this book have been written by tourism academicians who are experts in their respective fields. The chapters contain qualitative or quantitative research data and current statistical data, making this book useful for academic research. I thank all the contributors and dedicate this book to my family.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Editor CV
  • Book Abstract
  • Citability of the eBook
  • Contents
  • List of Contributors
  • 1 Rural Tourism in Durbuy City
  • 2 Effects of Ecotourism Activities in Forests on the Soil
  • 3 Usage Areas of Salt Mineral and Its Varieties
  • 4 Hotel Managers’ Metaphoric Perceptions for Smart Hotel
  • 5 Innovation in Tourism and Examples in Practice
  • 6 Diaspora Tourism
  • 7 Ecotourism and Geographical Information Systems Applications
  • 8 Gastronomy Tourism and Geographical Indications in Tokat
  • 9 Sustainable Gastronomic Tourism
  • 10 To Determine the Recreational Potential of Trabzon
  • 11 Digital Transformation & Marketing in Tourism Industry
  • 12 Cultural Heritage Tourism Inventory in Tokat Province
  • 13 Effects of Digitalization in Tourism
  • 14 Climate Change and Tourism
  • 15 Overtourism
  • 16 Qualitative Approaches for Tourism Research
  • 17 Event Tourism
  • 18 The Effect of Nepotism
  • 19 Sharing Economy for Sustainability in Tourism
  • 20 Sustainable Tourism Criteria and Turkish Restaurants
  • 21 City Tourism and Kütahya
  • 22 An Overview of Creative Tourism Concept
  • 23 Gastronomy Festivals in Turkey
  • List of Figures
  • List of Tables

List of Contributors

Ahmet AÇIL

Research Assistant, Karabük University, Faculty of Forestry, Department of Forestry Engineering, email: ahmetacil@karabuk.edu.tr

Ömer Ceyhun APAK

Lecturer, Bayburt University, Social Sciences Vocational School, email: ceyhun.apak@hotmail.com.


Assist. Prof., Dr., Tokat Gaziosmanpaşa University, Zile Dinçerler Tourism and Hotel Management College, Department of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, Tokat, Turkey, email: emin.arslan@gop.edu.tr.


Nevşehir Hacı Bektaş Veli University, Institute of Social Sciences, Department of Tourism Management, email: emreaykac1@hotmail.com.


Prof., Dr., Necmettin Erbakan University, Tourism Faculty, Department of Tourism Management, email: ahmetbuyuksalvarci@gmail.com.


Lecturer, Mardin Artuklu University, Mardin Vocational High School, Department of Hotel, Restaurant and Catering Services, email: irembozkurt@artuklu.edu.tr.

Mehmet CAN

Assist. Prof., Dr., Aksaray University, Güzelyurt Vocational School, Department of Hotel, Restaurant and Catering Services, email: mehmet23can@hotmail.com.


Assist. Prof., Dr., Kütahya Dumlupınar University, Tavşanlı Faculty of Applied Sciences, Department of Tourism Management, email: ugur.ceylan@dpu.edu.tr.

Serdar ÇÖP

Assist. Prof., Dr., Istanbul Gelisim University, Faculty of Economics, Administrative and Social Sciences, Department of Tourism Guidance email: scop@gelisim.edu.tr

←11 | 12→


Assist. Prof., Dr., Kırklareli University, Faculty of Tourism, Department of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, email: bilaldeveci@gmail.com.


Assoc. Prof. Dr., Karabük Üniversity, Faculty of Forestry, Department of Landscape Architecture, Karabük, email: yasindonmez@karabuk.edu.tr.


Assist. Prof., Dr., Karabük University, Faculty of Forestry, Department of Forestry Engineering, email: ahmetduyar@karabuk.edu.tr

Serdar EREN

Assist. Prof., Dr., Kutahya Dumlupinar University, Tavsanli Faculty of Applied Sciences, Department of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, email: serdar.eren@dpu.edu.tr


Ph.D, Kütahya Dumlupınar University, Tavşanlı Faculty of Applied Sciences, Department of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, email: kansu.gencer@dpu.edu.tr


Ph.D., Karabük University, Safranbolu Tourism Faculty, Department of Tourism Management, email: sametgokkaya@karabuk.edu.tr


Assist. Prof., Dr., Akdeniz University, Manavgat Tourism Faculty, Department of Recreation Management, email: ebrugozen@akdeniz.edu.tr


Assoc. Prof., Dr., Haci Bayram Veli University, Faculty of Tourism, Department of Recreation Management, email: evrengucer@gazi.edu.tr


Assist. Prof., Dr., Tokat Gaziosmanpaşa University, Zile Dinçerler Tourism and Hotel Management College, Tourism and Hotel Management Department, Tokat, Turkey, email: ediz.guripek@gop.edu.tr


Assist. Prof., Dr., Tokat Gaziosmanpaşa University, Zile Dinçerler Tourism and Hotel Management College, Department of Tourism and Hotel Management, Tokat, Turkey, email: hakan.kendir@gop.edu.tr.

←12 | 13→


Lecturer, Ezgi KIRICI TEKELİ, Iğdır University, Iğdır Vocational School of Higher Education, Department of Travel-Tourism and Entertainment Services, Tourist Guidance Program, email: ezgi.kirici@igdir.edu.tr.


Assist. Prof. Dr., Sinop University, School of Tourism and Hotel Management, Department of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, email: handanozcelikbozkurt@gmail.com.


Assoc. Prof. Dr., Kastamonu University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Department of Landscape Architecture, Kastamonu, email: sevgiozturk37@gmail.com.

Mehmet Mert PASLI

Assist. Prof., Giresun University, Bulancak School of Applied Sciences, Tourism and Hotel Management, email: mert.pasli@giresun.edu.tr


Assist. Prof. Dr., Necmettin Erbakan University, Tourism Faculty, Gastronomy and Culinary Arts Department, Konya/Turkey, email: yeliz.ulusan@gmail.com.

Mustafa Cüneyt ŞAPCILAR

Assist. Prof., Dr., Necmettin Erbakan University, Tourism Faculty, Department of Tourism Management, email: mustafcuneyt@gmail.com.

Yılmaz SEÇİM

Assist. Prof. Dr., Yılmaz SEÇİM., Necmettin Erbakan University, Tourism Faculty, Gastronomy and Culinary Arts Department, email: yilmazsecim@gmail.com


Assist. Prof., Dr., Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Tourism Faculty, email: serdarsunnetcioglu@comu.edu.tr


Mehmet TEKELİ, Nevşehir Hacı Bektaş Veli University, Institute of Social Sciences, Department of Tourism Management, email: tekelimehmet@hotmail.com.

Abdullah USLU

Assist. Prof., Dr., Akdeniz University, Manavgat Tourism Faculty, Department of Tourism Management, email: auslu@akdeniz.edu.tr.

←13 | 14→


Instructor, Aksaray University, Güzelyurt Vocational School, Department of Hotel, Restaurant and Catering Services, email: caglaust@gmail.com.


Nevşehir Hacı Bektaş Veli University, Institute of Social Sciences, Department of Tourism Management, email: enesyildirim@nevsehir.edu.tr.

Abdullah USLU

1   Rural Tourism in Durbuy City*


Lately, rural tourism became a significant concept in the tourism industry and has developed immensely. World Tourism Organization envisages that from 2020s onwards, tourists will participate in individual tourism movements rather than mass tourism and will head towards alternative and special interest tourism activities with a desire to experience the untried. In most rural areas, tourism is deemed as an important alternative for the purposes of economic growth and regional development. Studies going a long way back reveal that rural tourism has a positive economic impact. Tourism brings variety to the economy of rural communities, which is mainly dependent on agriculture. It provides new opportunities for rural areas. Rural cities such as Durbuy consider tourism as an economic value. Such cities endeavor to develop their tourism industry. However, restricted competitive advantages have an impact on destinations in a way to affect the tourism capital, as well. Building a dreamy or attractive place for tourists is quite difficult in rural tourism areas. For instance, for most tourists the city of Brussels can be a much more interesting place than a rural tourism destination.

Being the biggest village of Medieval Europe, Durbuy embodies various rural tourism activities and is a very important rural tourism destination. From that perspective, the rural tourism potential of Durbuy city will be evaluated and discussed in the current study. This evaluation is believed to serve as a good role model in the sense of developing other rural tourism areas throughout the world. In this chapter, firstly the concept of rural tourism, which is at least as important as the trio of sea, sand and sun, the importance of rural tourism and its impacts will be addressed, and following that, Durbuy city which is exemplary for its active rural tourism activities and was selected the most distinguished rural tourism destination within the scope of European Destinations of Excellence (EDEN) project commenced by the European Commission in 2007 will be introduced. Lastly, the rural tourism activities in Durbuy will be listed.

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Rural Tourism

With the strong winds of globalization which rose within the last century and as a result of economic, political, cultural and technological changes, countries realized that they need to develop sustainable policies and to revise their existing ones. People living in rural areas should not be restricted only to development from agricultural and livestock activities and should be provided with rural tourism opportunities which will develop their entrepreneurial capital. The quest for a sustainable and livable environment has pushed people to seek different things. New dimensions were introduced to vacation, recreation and entertainment activities, bringing with them new and popular approaches to tourism. Rural tourism is one of such new and modern approaches. Rural tourism, together with its relevant activities, contributed to the balanced development of countries and improvement of the prosperity of rural communities. Likewise, by enabling an active and effective use of rural areas, rural tourism activities also prevent the migration of people living in rural settlements to larger cities.

In the sense of developing upon the concept of rural tourism, it can be seen that academics from different countries have proposed different definitions. Some definitions emphasize places with low population while some others place importance on the tourists’ expectations for the natural, traditional and historical features of settlements (EC, 1999). Still other definitions consider rural tourism as a kind of tourism wherein tourists take part in activities such as ranch tours and hikes in the nature, riding horses, trekking, fishing etc. There is another definition which addresses rural tourism, in the broadest sense, as all tourism activities carried out in a rural area (Özkan, 2007).

World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) defines rural tourism and the rural culture as an essential part of the recreational tourist product. According to the definition provided by the EU, rural tourism is what is desired by people who enjoy spending their vacation time in a rural environment, being involved in the rural way of living and seeing the rural heritage (European Commission, 2003). The components of rural tourism are service, transportation, accommodation, activity areas, centers of attraction, events and support services (Veer & Tuunter, 2005). Another definition describes rural tourism as a vacation activity carried out in a safe and peaceful rural settlement, participating in the use of natural resources, and being a part of cultural values and the rural manner of living (Middleton & Rebecca, 1988). Likewise, rural tourism is a complex activity containing multidimensional practices ranging from nature activities, festivals, historical and traditional events, art shows, agricultural tourism, folk theater to ←16 | 17→farm-based tourism and educational travelling (Kiper, 2006). According to the World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC), for a tourism activity to be considered within the scope of rural tourism, it needs to be carried out in a rural setting, and during such activity, the natural fabric of that rural setting needs to be protected on a sustainability basis. In line with these conditions, rural tourism needs to place importance on the authentic natural assets of the area and the socio-cultural diversity should be emphasized.

Rural tourism emerged as a different kind of tourism in line with people’s desire to get away from the routine of life and concretion of urban areas and to satisfy their need to see different sights and their interest in recreational activities at peaceful and natural areas (Ahipaşaoğlu & Çeltek, 2006: 2). In terms of the sustainability of tourism, rural tourism has an importance that grows with each passing day due to the fact that the activities it contains do not harm the nature (Fuentes-Fuentes et. al., 2006: 48). Another phenomenon which boosts the popularity of rural tourism is that it brings together the local culture and local products, weaving a different touristic fabric (Liu, 2006). The two most important main features of rural tourism are the facts that it serves as a livelihood for the local residents by providing socio-economic benefits in the rural area and that it is an effective instrument for the protection of cultural and natural values (Snieškaa et al., 2014).

The reasons impacting upon the rapid popularization and development of rural tourism throughout the world are the changes in the expectations of tourists, the desire to see new places and cultures, and the wish to move individually instead of being involved in mass tourism (Kutukız et al., 2016). Rural tourism encompasses both a travel from one country to the rural areas of another country and a short visit to the rural areas nearby a person’s household and contributes greatly to rural development. The items in the list provided below are the driving forces of rural tourism (Hall et al., 2005);

- Income-generating activities,

- Changes happening in rural and urban areas,

- The multiplied effect in the case of direct investments of a relatively small scale,

- Strengthening of local/regional structures through networking,

- Promotion of developments in the physical infrastructure, and

- Increasing the diversity of economic activities.

In the literature, rural tourism is also called farm-based tourism, agro-tourism, green tourism or eco-tourism (Dubois & Schmitz, 2013; Peláez, 2004). Rural tourism is a type of tourism allowing for activities such as shopping, skiing, ←17 | 18→horseback nature rides, rafting, sports, hunting and fishing and arts and culture activities (Ryglova et al., 2017).

The rural tourism capital comprises rural areas, rural heritage, rural life and rural activities. Rural areas are mainly made up of the nature, mountains, forests, lakes and rivers. While rural heritage encompasses the traditional and local architecture and historical ruins, the rural life contains local food and activities, handicrafts and traditional music. The most prominent rural activities are hiking, fishing, horse riding, biking and water sports (Özdemir, 2012). Tourism activities in rural areas are shaped by the topography, vegetation, climate, historical and cultural assets, water resources, socio-economic structure and fabric and traditions of the area. Accordingly, the rural tourism identity of a given area is formed by its authentic attributes.

According to OECD (1994), activities such as hiking, photography, biking, climbing, hunting, fishing, horse riding, festivals, village strolls, rural sightseeing, grass skiing, birdwatching, rafting, canoeing, folklore and sporting activities belonging to the local culture can be considered within the scope of rural tourism activities.

The Importance of Rural Tourism

Rural tourism is of great importance for rural areas and national economies as a whole. It has a marked difference in that it has the advantage of being available in all twelve months of the year, contains a rich variety of activities and is suitable for all. Rural tourism is not limited only to coastal areas and bears the potential to be developed and to develop in all rural areas. Rural tourism contributes positively to the social, economic and cultural development of rural areas and also serves to protect the natural, historical and cultural heritage in rural areas. When carried out in a planned manner, rural tourism activities provide the local people, especially women, with new employment opportunities and play an important role in making remarkable contributions to rural economies (Soykan, 2003: 2). Moreover, through the refreshing effect of rural tourism areas, positive results can be achieved in the sense of resolving the economic, social and psychological issues faced by tourists due to their being boxed up in a certain place during their vacations (Gürer, 2003). Again, according to Kesici (2012: 33) the importance of rural tourism can be summarized as follows;

Rural tourism has no seasonality and can be enjoyed in any season.

Rural tourism has an important balancing effect in the geographical distribution of tourism.

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Rural tourism can be integrated to numerous other types of tourism.

Rural tourism contains a great variety of unique recreational activities.

Rural tourism has a different tourist profile.

Rural tourism contributes to the protection of the natural environment and the cultural heritage.

Rural tourism serves the understanding of sustainable tourism.

Rural tourism is an important tool for the publicity of a country.

Another important attribute of rural tourism is that it has lower costs. It is a tourism activity taking places in rural areas which can grow without relying on external sources through the contribution of local administrations and the participation of small scale enterprises. The installation costs are also rather low and the installation processes are easy. Likewise, rural tourism activities can be developed regardless of the need for other companies’ establishing new businesses or making greater investments in the region (Wilson et al., 2001: 132).

Positive and Negative Impacts of Rural Tourism

In the 1990s it was found out that rural tourism has an effect in the development of rural areas. With a study carried out in the United Kingdom, it was revealed that local residents were involved in the tourism industry in order to increase their income (Fleischer & Pizam, 1997). The facts that people living in rural areas have lower income, that their working conditions are not very well, that the livelihood earned from agricultural activities is low, that unemployment rates are higher in the rural areas and seasonal labor is prevalent have rendered rural tourism a more attractive alternative. The purpose here is supporting the orderly distribution of income throughout the year and also resolving the issue of latent unemployment, enabling the distribution seasonal work to all 12 months of the year and, as a result, providing a positive contribution to household and national economies (Torun, 2013: 34). At the same time, rural tourism activities have both positive and negative impacts on the socio-economic situation, rural development, social structure, physical environment and culture.

Rural tourism may also impose both positive and possible negative effects on rural areas. Positive effects can be generally listed as below (Morgül, 2006: 68–70; Uslu et al., 2015);

Rural tourism prevents the migration of the residents

It contributes to the development of relations between people residing in rural areas and those living in cities.

It enables family members to spend more time together.

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It contributes to the development of rural areas.

It enables the generation of income for the residents from varied activities and boosts the development of small enterprises.

It improves the living standards for the residents


ISBN (Softcover)
Publication date
2020 (March)
Turkish tourism Gastronomy tourism sector academic studies
Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Warszawa, Wien, 2020. 340 pp., 18 fig. b/w, 46 tables.

Biographical notes

Fatih Türkmen (Volume editor)

Associate Prof. Dr. Fatih Türkmen was born in Ankara, Turkey, in 1978. He com-pleted his graduation, postgraduation and doctorate in the field of tourism man-agement. He has published many articles in national and international journals apart from books on tourism. Türkmen is associated with the Safranbolu Tourism Faculty at Karabük Univer sity, Turkey, and is on a temporary assignment with the tourism department at Ahmet Yesevi University, Turkistan, Kazakhstan.


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342 pages