Dynamics of International Tourism: Contemporary Issues and Problems

by İrfan Yazicioğlu (Volume editor) Özgür Yayla (Volume editor) Alper Işın (Volume editor)
©2021 Edited Collection 562 Pages


This book has been prepared by pursuing a scientic goal in the eld of tourism and
hotel management in order to create a resource for the academicians and sector
representatives who conduct studies on the subject. Within this context, the book
‘Dynamics of International Tourism: Contemporary Issues and Problems’, with a focus
on tourism and hotel management terminology, is expected to be a source book for
the theoretical and practical scientic studies in the elds with which tourism is in
close relationship such as gastronomy, recreation and marketing.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the editors
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Preface
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Contributors
  • Chapter 1 Alienation from Work and Organization in the Covid-19 Pandemic Process: Possible Predictions for Hotel Establishments (Şerif Ahmet DEMİRDAĞ)
  • Chapter 2 Information and Communication Technologies in e-Tourism and the Transformative Effects of Covid-19 (Kazım DAĞ)
  • Chapter 3 The Impact of Covid 19 on the Sustainability of Protected Areas (Gülsün YILDIRIM)
  • Chapter 4 The Effects of the Pandemic and the Precautions Taken on Important Countries on Tourıst Arrivals (İlke BAŞARANGİL)
  • Chapter 5 The Reflections of Covid-19 Pandemic on Tourism (Zühal ÖZDEMİR YAMAN and Mehmet GÜLLÜ)
  • Chapter 6 Smart Tourism: Developments and Applications (Sinan ÇAVUŞOĞLU)
  • Chapter 7 Digitalization in Tourism (Aylin NALÇACI İKİZ)
  • Chapter 8 Analysis of Tourists’ Instagram Content in Terms of Destination Branding: A Comparison between Istanbul and Prague (Aydın ÜNAL; Gizem ÖZGÜREL and Ceyhun AKYOL)
  • Chapter 9 Over Tourism and Social Media (Banu ZENCIR and Oktay EMIR)
  • Chapter 10 Digital Transformation in Cultural Tours: Virtual Reality and Virtual Tourist Guidance (Ilknur MAZAN and Ozan CATIR)
  • Chapter 11 “Hypermetropia” in Tourism (Serdar SÜNNETÇİOĞLU; Ferah ÖZKÖK and Ayşe SÜNNETÇİOĞLU)
  • Chapter 12 Medical Tourism and Ethics (Erdem ŞİMŞEK)
  • Chapter 13 Folk Medicine and Tourism (Barış DEMİRCİ and Yuliia BOROVSKA)
  • Chapter 14 Rising Tourism Trend: Camping-Caravan Tourism (F. Kübra AYLAN and Serkan AYLAN)
  • Chapter 15 Halal Tourism (Mehmet Mert PASLI)
  • Chapter 16 Fertility and Birth Tourism as an International Tourism Activities (Nazlı ESER and Bayram KANCA)
  • Chapter 17 The New Trend: Bubble Hotels (Aliye AKIN)
  • Chapter 18 Slow Movement in Tourism: A Literature Review on Cittaslow Practices in Turkey and Europe (Merve ÖKSÜZ and Fatih VAROL)
  • Chapter 19 Cultural Heritage Tourism (Murat ÖDEMİŞ and Ertuğrul DÜZGÜN)
  • Chapter 20 Visitor-Space Affect: Is Architectural Tourism Possible in Şırnak? (Ceren AVCI)
  • Chapter 21 Customer Satisfaction in Tourism (Üzeyir KEMENT and Murat GÖRAL)
  • Chapter 22 Eco-Labeling in Sustainable Tourism (Şafak ÜNÜVAR; Şeyda SARI and Eren YALÇIN)
  • Chapter 23 Social Media Marketing in Tourism Industry (Muhammet Emin SOYDAŞ)
  • Chapter 24 Workplace Bullying in the Tourism Sector (Halil Can AKTUNA)
  • Chapter 25 Use of Quality Management Systems in Tourism Businesses (Aziz BÜKEY)
  • Chapter 26 Sharing Economy in the Accommodation Sector (Mustafa Cüneyt ŞAPCILAR)
  • Chapter 27 University-Industry Collaboration in Tourism Higher Education (Ömür Hakan KUZU)
  • Chapter 28 Tourism Activities in Turkey during and after the Era of Ataturk (Erkan DAĞLI)
  • Chapter 29 A Brand New Technique Proposal in Hierarchical Tourism Taxonomy: Concept Elucidation (Akif GÖKÇE and Orhan BATMAN)
  • Chapter 30 Butler’s Destination Life Cycle Model: The Sample of Manavgat (Ali KELEŞ)
  • Chapter 31 The Theory of Planned Behavior and Tourist Behavior: A Bibliometric Analysis (Vedat YİĞİTOĞLU)
  • Chapter 32 The Evaluation of Local Products and Geographical Indications within the Scope of Gastronomy Tourism (Esra ÖZATA ŞAHİN and Berrin ONURLAR)
  • Chapter 33 Traditional Turnip Meals and Calla in Turkey and its Nutritional Effects (Abdullah BADEM)
  • Chapter 34 The Necessity of Applications Providing Flexibility in Working Hours in the Tourism Sector and the Legal Framework of Flexible Working Time (Sevgi DURSUN ATEŞ)
  • Chapter 35 The Relationship between Menu Designs and Customer Behaviors in Restaurants (Fuat BAYRAM; Özkan ERDEM and Adem ARMAN)

←10 | 11→

List of Contributors

Aliye AKIN

Assoc.Prof. Dr., Abant İzzet Baysal University, Faculty of Tourism, Department of Tourism Management, Bolu, Turkey, aliye.akin@ibu.edu.tr

Halil Can AKTUNA

Asst. Prof. Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University, Ardeşen Vocational School, Department of Tourism and Hotel Management, halilcan.aktuna@erdogan.edu.tr

Ceyhun AKYOL

Lecturer Dr, Artvin Çoruh University, Artvin Vocational High School, Department of Hotel, Restaurant and Catering Services, ceyhunakyol@artvin.edu.tr


Assist. Prof., Akdeniz University, Tourism Faculty, Department of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, ademarman@akdeniz.edu.tr

Ceren AVCI

Asst. Prof., Şırnak University, School of Tourism and Hotel Management, Department of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, ceren.avci@sirnak.edu.tr

F. Kübra AYLAN

Asst. Prof., Selcuk University, Tourism Faculty, Department of Recreation Management, kubraceliloglu@gmail.com

Serkan AYLAN

Asst. Prof., Selcuk University, Tourism Faculty, Department of Tourism Guidance, serkaylan@gmail.com

Abdullah BADEM

Assist.Prof.Dr. Department of Hotel, Restaurant and Catering, Vocational School of Social Sciences, Karamanoglu Mehmetbey University, abdullah_badem@yahoo.com

←11 | 12→


Kırklareli University, Faculty of Tourism, Tourism Guidance Department ilkekaya33@hotmail.com


Prof. Dr.Sakarya University of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Tourism, Deparment of Tourism Management. Email: obatman@subu.edu.tr. ORCID: 0000-0001-7186-7064


Lecturer. Abant İzzet Baysal University, Mengen Vocational School, bayram_f@ibu.edu.tr


Eskişehir Osmangazi University Institute of Social Sciences, juli94borovska@gmail.com


Lect. Bingöl University, Vocational School of Social Science, Tourism and Hospitality Management, azizbukey@gmail.com


PhD., Usak University, Vocational School of Ulubey, Departmant of Tourism and Travel Services,ozan.catir@usak.edu.tr


Dr., Bingöl University, Vocational School of Social Science, Management and Organization Services, sinankys42@gmail.com

Kazım DAĞ

Dr.,Ministry of National Education, Gaziantep, kzmdgnrhk@gmail.com.tr


Dr., Akdeniz University, Manavgat Tourism Faculty, Departmant of History, erkandagli@akdeniz.edu.tr


Asst. Prof. Eskişehir Osmangazi University Faculty of Tourism, bdemirci@ogu.edu.tr

←12 | 13→

Şerif Ahmet DEMİRDAĞ

Asst. Prof., Giresun University, School of Bulancak Kadir Karabaş Applied Sciences, Tourism Management serif.demirdag@giresun.edu.tr


Asst. Prof., Selcuk University, Faculty of Law Vocational School of Justice, sevgi@selcuk.edu.tr

Ertuğrul DÜZGÜN

Asst. Prof. Dr., Bolu Abant İzzet Baysal University, Tourism Faculty, Tourism Guidance Department, duzgunertugrul@gmail.com

Oktay EMIR

Prof. Dr., Anadolu University, Open Education Faculty, oktayemir@anadolu.edu.tr


Lecturer Akdeniz University, Göynük Culinary Arts Vocational School, ozkanerdem@akdeniz.edu.tr

Nazlı ESER

Graduate Student, Giresun University, Tourism Faculty, Department of Ecotourism Counseling, nazlieser1209@gmail.com


Assist. Prof. Dr. Karamanoğlu Mehmetbey University, School of Applied Sciences, Department of Tourism Guiding. E-mail: akifgokce@hotmail.com. ORCID: 0000-0002-7204-6601


Dr., Bingöl University, Social Sciences Vocation Highschool, Department of Tourism Management, mgoral@bingol.edu.tr

Mehmet GÜLLÜ

Assist. Prof., Tokat Gaziosmanpaşa University, Zile Dinçerler College of Tourism and Hotel Management, Department of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, mehmet.gullu@gop.edu.tr

Bayram KANCA

Dr. Öğr. Member of, Giresun University, Tourism Faculty, Departmant of Recreation Management, bayram.kanca@giresun.edu.tr

←13 | 14→


Dr., Hotel Manager, ali.keles@lindaresorthotel.com


Assoc. Prof. Dr., Ordu University, Tourism Faculty, Gastronomy and Culinary Arts Department, uzeyirkement@odu.edu.tr

Ömür Hakan KUZU

Assoc. Prof. Dr., Selcuk University, Beysehir Ali Akkanat Tourism Faculty, Department of Tourism Guidance, ohkuzu@selcuk.edu.tr

Ilknur MAZAN

PhD., Usak University, Vocational School of Banaz, Departmant of Tourism and Hotel Management, ilknur.mazan@usak.edu.tr


Asst. Prof., Kırıkkale University, Fatma Şenses Social Science Vocational School, Departmant of Tourism and Hotel Management, aylinnalcaci@kku.edu.tr


Asst. Prof. Dr., Gümüşhane University, Tourism Faculty, Gastronomy and Culinary Arts Department, mrodemis@gmail.com


Asst. Prof. Baskent University, Faculty of Commercial Sciences, Tourism Management merveoksuz85@hotmail.com


Lecturer,İstanbul Medeniyet University, Faculty of Tourism, Department of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts,berrin.onurlar@medeniyet.edu.tr


Lecturer, Hitit University, Alaca Avni Çelik Vocational School of Higher Education, Hotel, Restaurant and Catering Services Department,esraozata@hitit.edu.tr


Assist. Prof., Bolu Abant İzzet Baysal University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, ozdemir_z@ibu.edu.tr

←14 | 15→


Assistant Professor; Balıkesir Univesity, Burhaniye School of Applied Sciences, Department of Tourism Managemet, gizemozgurel@hotmail.com


Prof. Dr., Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Tourism Faculty, Departmant of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, fozkok@comu.edu.tr

Mehmet Mert PASLI

Asst. Prof., Giresun University, Bulancak School of Applied Sciences, Department of Tourism Management, mert.pasli@giresun.edu.tr

Mustafa Cüneyt ŞAPCILAR

Asst. Prof., Necmettin Erbakan University, Faculty of Tourism, Departmant of Tourism Management, mustafcuneyt@gmail.com

Şeyda SARI

Assist Prof., Selcuk University, Tourism Faculty, Departmant of Tourism Management, seydasari@hotmail.co.uk


Res. Assist., Ankara Hacı Bayram Veli University, Tourism Faculty, Department of Tourism Management, erdem.simsek@hbv.edu.tr

Muhammet Emin SOYDAŞ

Asst. Prof. Dr., Pamukkale University, Faculty of Tourism, Departmant of Tourism Management, mesoydas@pau.edu.tr


Asst. Prof., Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Gelibolu Piri Reis Vocational School Departmant of Travel Tourism and Entertainment Services, aysesunnetcioglu@comu.edu.tr


Assoc. Prof., Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Tourism Faculty, Departmant of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, serdarsunnetcioglu@comu.edu.tr

Aydın ÜNAL

Associate Professor Dr. Kırklareli University, Pınarhisar Vocational High School, Department of Travel-Tourism and Entertainment Services, aydin-unal@hotmail.com.tr

←15 | 16→


Prof. Dr., Selcuk University, Tourism Faculty, Departmant of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, safakaunuvar@gmail.com


Asst. Prof., Selcuk University, Faculty of Tourism, Department of Recreation Management, fvarol@selcuk.edu.tr


Res. Assist., Selcuk University, Tourism Faculty, Departmant of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts., yalcinerene@gmail.com


Asst. Prof. Dr., Akdeniz University, Manavgat Tourism Faculty, Department of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, vedatyigitoglu@akdeniz.edu.tr


Assist. Prof. Dr., Recep Tayyip Erdogan University, Ardesen Tourism Faculty, Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, gulsun.yildirim@erdogan.edu.tr


Ph.D., Afyonkocatepe University, Şuhut Vocational High School, Departmant of Advertising Management, banuzincir26@hotmail.com

←16 | 17→

Şerif Ahmet DEMİRDAĞ

Chapter 1 Alienation from Work and Organization in the Covid-19 Pandemic Process: Possible Predictions for Hotel Establishments


The role and importance of the human factor in the tourism sector is at a very high level as in most service sectors. Because automation applications are difficult to implement and often cannot be applied in every department in the service sectors, especially in the tourism sector. Considered in terms of hotel establishments, almost all relations are face-to-face between service providers and consumers, although products that seem tangible are purchased (such as rooms, tables, entertainment temporarily). Substitution of these services offered in hotel establishments is generally easy and competition is high in this respect. Just at this point, the duties and responsibilities of hotel employees are at a high level on the satisfaction, commitment and loyalty of tourist consumers. For this reason, with the combination of appropriate management style and technology in changing working conditions, the welfare of the employees should be kept in the foreground. It is clear that if the employees are not satisfied with the job, their commitment and loyalty to the organization and the job cannot be ensured and an environment of trust and effective communication cannot be established, some problems may arise regarding the employees playing the key role of the tourism sector. Since hotel establishments provide service 24 hours a day and 7 days a week, they are in a dynamic structure, and continuous interactive relations, cooperation and teamwork are needed. In this intense work tempo, sometimes employees cannot realize themselves, distance themselves from them, and thus they can also experience alienation from the work and the organization. Although the phenomenon of alienation is considered as a multidimensional phenomenon, in general, alienation is the concept of injury in the existence and consciousness of human that prevents the integrity of their experience and activities (Blauner, 1964, p. 32; Bonjean & Grimers, 1970, p. 366). For this reason, the supervisors of organizations should be interested in the problems that employees encounter in their jobs as much as they are interested in outputs, productivity and changing management strategies. ←17 | 18→Because each organizational problem has a direct or indirect negative effect on the functioning and efficiency of the organization (Demirdağ, 2019, p. 116). This is just like a small spark in relation to the start of the fire. Before the fire grows, the basis of the fire must be determined and prevented. Supervisors of organizations, as firefighters, have a great responsibility in creating a strategy and dealing with such as problems.

Since December 2019, the whole world has been trying to cope with a relentless and deadly virus: COVID-19. The New Coronavirus Disease Covid-19 first appeared in Wuhan Province of China with respiratory symptoms (fever, cough, shortness of breath) and was defined as a deadly disease on January 13, 2020 as a result of studies on it (T. R. Ministry of Health, 2021). Many sectors such as health, production, travel, tourism, marketing and education, especially the economy of the countries, have been adversely affected by this epidemic in question (Demirdağ, 2020, p. 750). While many businesses of the aforementioned sectors came to a standstill, many employees were laid off or could not work. Therefore, it can be thought that the employees forming the organizations started to become alienated from themselves, their jobs and organizations as well as the main problems they experienced in this period. In general, alienation from work and organization means that an employee in the organization isolates himself or herself physically or psychologically from the work and the organization. An employee who is alienated from work and/or organization loses his motivation, his job stress increases and as a result of all these, he wants to leave his job (Demirez & Tosunoğlu, 2017, p. 69). From this point of view, in this study, it has been tried to examine the alienation problems (by examining academic studies) that hotel employees have experienced or may experience against their jobs and organizations during the Covid-19 pandemic process, and some possible predictions have been tried to be made on this problem.

The Phenomenon of Alienation: Different Approaches

The term used in English as “alienation” derives from the Latin noun “alienatio” and the verb “alienare” meaning ‘take away’ and ‘remove’ (Klein, 1966; Kanungo, 1982, p. 9). There are many different definitions used instead of alienation and/or for similar expressions (such as estrangement, separation, withdrawal, indifference, disaffection, apathy, noninvolvement, neutralism). In fact, sometimes definitions made by the same authors contain several nuances of meaning (Keniston, 1960, p. 161; Dean, 1961, p. 754). As stated by Nettler (1957), although the concept of alienation is based on a very old history, but it ←18 | 19→is used in various ways by those who adopt it for scientific purposes. He also states that Hegel (1910) first suggested alienation as a descriptive concept of what happens to the socialized person and defined this term as the separation of people from their environment, including their own self and nature. Hegel here used the concept of alienation as religiously related to idolatry and expressed it philosophically as ‘part of the process of self-creativity and self-discovery’. He believes that at the beginning our consciousness is alienated from itself and, it cannot understand its true nature, and in order to understand this, consciousness must develop absolute knowledge (Debnath, 2020, p. 51). Affinnih (1997, p. 384) states that the term alienation, which possesses both subjective and objective dimensions, includes various psychological states: loneliness, homelessness, meaninglessness, normlessness, apathy, isolation, and a disjunction between two conditions such as work and self-esteem. He also underlines that alienation is a psychological and sociological explanation for a wide range of human behavior. Alienation can generally be described as an introverted attitude brought about by the absence of values and a socio-psychological discomfort caused by the inability of modern people to be involved in social processes (Pappenheim, 2000, p. 44). After Hegel, Marx (1932) examined the concept of alienation in more detail and comprehensively from the socio-economic aspect and tried to determine the effects of the work process on the employees. Karl Marx argued that alienation from work represents a loss of individuality, and such a loss is undesirable for the individual and society in general (Kanungo, 1992, p. 414). Hence, Marx actually made alienation towards work, thus forming the origin of the concept of alienation from work. Concerning work alienation, Marx believes that creative activity is a fundamental aspect of human nature and that this need is most often satisfied in work. According to Marx, work alienation is a contradiction between the nature of the work role and the nature of man. In other words, it is the situation where the employee loses his control over the product of his labor, the working process and the capacity to express himself about his work (Marx, 1963; Mottaz, 1981, p. 515). Fuchs and Sevignani (2013, p. 245) who examined Marx’s approach to alienation, state that alienation is the alienation of the subject from itself (labor-power is put to use for and is controlled by capital), alienation from the object (the objects of labor and the instruments of labor) and the subject-object (the products of labor). They tried to visualize this process with the image in Fig. 1 so that it can be understood more clearly.

Fig. 1:The alienation process in capitalism

Reference: Fuchs & Sevignani (2013, p. 246)

Regarding the figure and explanations above, the authors state that in capitalism, alienation means that workers are unable to control their labor-power, means of production and results, and have to work for capital part of the day ←19 | 20→in order to survive. Forcing labor to work without payment for capital, which results in the production of surplus value and monetary profit, constitutes a system of exploitation of labor in relation to alienation and, exploitation takes place within certain relations of production and class relations. Although production is a common process in the economy of all societies, it can only take place in concrete historical conditions in which people enter into certain social relations with each other, and therefore the development of production and productive forces does not constitute an abstract process.

Especially since the second half of the 1900s, many of the theoretical and empirical studies on alienation have been strongly influenced by the work of Hegel and Marx, as well as Melvin Seeman. He argues that a concept so central to sociological work and clearly value-laden requires special clarity. Seeman (1959, p. 783), in his article on the meaning of alienation, tried to clarify the meaning of the concept by defining five dimensions (powerlessness, meaninglessness, normlessness, isolation, and self-estrangement) of alienation. It is useful to briefly explain the five dimensions of alienation put forward by Seeman (1959, p. 784–790) from his point of view. Powerlessness means that the employee does ←20 | 21→not have control over the results of his own outputs and the tools he uses in the production process. Similarly, Marx was concerned with other alienating aspects of the industrial system; that is, the source of employees’ interest in powerlessness is thought to be from an interest in the consequences of alienation at work (for instance, the alienation of employee from others and the reduction of man to commodities). In other words, the feeling of powerlessness that leads to alienation, in short, arises from the fact that the systems or managers determine the employees’ work life, apart from the employees themselves. Meaninglessness, is related to the individual’s sense of understanding the events he is engaged. High levels of alienation can occur when the issue of what employees should believe is unclear, that is, when the individual’s minimum standards for clarity in decision making are not met in terms of meaninglessness. The meaninglessness arising from the distinction between work and employee is the uncertainty employees face in evaluating work and outputs. Normlessness, which is the third important dimension of alienation, in traditional usage means (anomie) a situation where the norms regulating individual behavior are broken or the rules of behavior are no longer effective. Normlessness is adopting behaviors that are not approved by society within the scope of social norms and, it is an imbalance that occurs as a result of the disappearance of standards and values in the society or the individual. Seeman states that isolation does not mean the lack of social adjustment of warmth, security, or intensity of an individual’s social relationships. In this context, those who are alienated in isolation dimension, like intellectuals, assign low reward value on goals or beliefs that are typically highly valued in a given society. He finds isolation closer to rebellion, which is a different adjustment pattern. Thus, isolation as a means of rebellion alienates the individual from goals and standards by leading people to envision and create a new, that is, greatly modified, social structure outside the surrounding social structure. The last of Seeman’s five dimensions of alienation is self-estrangement. Talking about two aspects of the self-estrangement doctrine, the researcher states that it is difficult to determine where the alienation comes from when the first one does not overlap with the other four dimensions. The second is a mode of experience in which the individual experiences himself as a stranger, alien that is, estranged from himself.

Almost at that time, Dean (1961) also examined alienation in different dimensions, just like Seeman (1959), but he considered the concept of alienation as three main components: “powerlessness”, “normlessness” and “social isolation”. Dean, who aimed to clarify the meaning of the concept of alienation with the aforementioned dimensions and to develop a scale related to this concept, stated that they could not find a significant relationship between alienation and social ←21 | 22→status, age or community background. According to him, alienation is more a situational variable rather than a personality trait. He hypothesizes that alienation may be more of a syndrome than a unitary phenomenon and, he predicted that further research is definitely needed before this concept can be empirically validated. However, even today, it can be questioned whether the concept of alienation has been fully validated empirically.

Erikson (1986, p. 1), to emphasize the importance of the concept, said that it is often heard from different quarters that modern workers are alienated due to work conditions and are largely deprived, emptied of their natural creativity and humanity. It is also necessary to include modern definitions of the terms work alienation and organizational alienation in more recent academic studies. Banai and Reisel (2007, p. 466) state that work alienation is a psychological state of separation that generalizes one’s self-image and social relations both inside and outside the job. According to Hirschfeld and Feild (2000, p. 790), work alienation represents the extent to which a person is disengaged and disconnected from his work world. Tummers and Den Dulk (2013) examined the relationship between work alienation, organizational commitment and work effort, and discussed alienation in two dimensions (powerlessness and meaninglessness). As a result of their work, they state that if people feel that they have no effect on their work (hence, when they feel ‘powerless’) and especially if they feel that their work is worthless (when they feel ‘meaningless’), this has significant negative effects in the context of alienation. Suárez‐Mendoza and Zoghbi‐Manrique‐de‐Lara (2007, p. 57) states that the problem of work alienation arises when the individual loses his control over the product and process of his labor and, therefore, the capacity to express himself at work. Work alienation, which negatively affects the organizational climate and organizational performance of the organization, is also associated with many concepts such as job performance, organizational citizenship behavior, absenteeism, health problems, slowing down the work and cyber-loafing (Kartal, 2018, p. 252). Yadav and Nagle (2012, p. 334) describe alienation as a feeling of isolation from other people, society and its values, and the self, especially the parts of the self that connects itself to others and to society in general. They also highlight that alienation in different organizational settings is a result of frustrating situation and perhaps individuals with weaker mental health may feel alienated more quickly and easily because of their lower frustration tolerance. On the other hand, the alienation of the employee to the organization, in contrast to the identification, is the alienate, draw away and withdrawal of the employee from the organization. Even if the employee who is alienated from the organization continues his job, he cannot approve himself as a member of the organization. These employees reject the organizational and social position and prestige that the organization gives ←22 | 23→them. Employees who are alienated from their organization often do not prefer to talk about their work-life in private lives, they turn their backs on the management of the organization, its social activities, and almost everything other than their duties. They cannot be proud of their organization and their work, and they look for sources of satisfaction outside the organization (Başaran, 1991, p. 207–208).


ISBN (Softcover)
Publication date
2021 (November)
Tourism Industry Cultural Heritage Gastronomy Hotel Management Marketing Recreation
Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Warszawa, Wien, 2021. 562 pp., 42 fig. b/w, 27 tables.

Biographical notes

İrfan Yazicioğlu (Volume editor) Özgür Yayla (Volume editor) Alper Işın (Volume editor)

İrfan Yazicioğlu, , is working as an academician at the Department of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts at Ankara Hacı Bayram Veli University, Turkey. His research interests include tourism, gastronomy, hospitality and also tourism industry. Özgür Yayla is currently an associate professor in the Faculty of Tourism, Manavgat at Akdeniz University, Turkey. He received his Master’s degree in tourism management and PhD degree in recreation management from Gazi University. His primary research interests involve recreational activities, service quality, tourist behaviour, destination marketing and the interaction between residents and tourists in destinations. Alper Işin, PhD., is working as an academician at the Department of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts at Ankara Hacı Bayram Veli University, Turkey. His research interests include tourism, gastronomy, food & beverage management and also destination marketing.


Title: Dynamics of International Tourism: Contemporary Issues and Problems
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